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Chapter 4 pt.2

Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Phospholipid bilayer a double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma and organelle membranes
chromosome in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; the main ring of DNA
nuclear envelope the double membrane that surrounds the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
nucleolus the part of the eukaryotic nucleus where ribosomal RNA is synthesized
ribosome a cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis
mitochondrion in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP
endoplasmic reticulum a system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids.
Golgi apparatus cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell
lysosome a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes and that buds from the Golgi apparatus.
cytoskeleton the cytoplasmic network of protein filaments and tube that play an essential role in cell movement, shape, and division.
microtubule one of the small, tubular fibers composed of the protein tubulin that are found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, that compose the cytoskeleton, and that play a role in cell structure and movement.
microfilament a fiber found inside eukaryotic cells that is composed mainly of the protein actin and that has a role in cell structure and movement
cilium a hair-like structure arranged in tightly packed rows that projects from the surface of some cells
flagellum a long, lair-like structure that grows out of a cell and enables the cell to move
centriole an organelle that is composed of two short microtubules at right angles to each other and that has an active role in mitosis
cell wall a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
central vacuole in some protists and in most plant cells, a large, fluid-filled organelle that stores water, enzymes, metabolic wastes, and other materials
plastid an organelle of plant cells that contains specific substances and performs specific functions for the cell; ex. chloroplasts and chromosomes.
chloroplast an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs.
thylakoid a membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis.
chlorophyll a green pigment that is present in most plant cells, that gives plants their characteristic green color, and that reacts with sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to form carbs.
Created by: FarlowA20