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7th Unit 1b

Body Systems Key Terms

TermDefinition
Cell The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning, consisting of one or more nuclei, cytoplasm, and various organelles, all surrounded by a semipermeable cell membrane
Tissue A groups of cells with a similar structure working together for a specific function.
Connective tissue Tissue that connects, supports, binds, or separates other tissues or organs
Epithelial tissue Tissues that line the cavities and surfaces of blood vessels and organs throughout the body.
Nerve tissue A highly differentiated tissue composed of nerve cells, nerve fibers, dendrites, and a supporting tissue (neuroglia).
Organ Any part of the body exercising a specific function, such as digestion or secretion
Organ system A group of organs that work with one another in order to achieve or perform a particular task or set of tasks.
Organism Any living thing such as an animal, plant, fungus, archaeon, or bacterium.
Waste A material that is unfit for further use within the organism
Circulatory system The body system consisting of the heart, blood vessels, and blood that circulates blood throughout the body, delivers nutrients and other essential materials to cells, and removes waste products
Atrium A body cavity or chamber, especially either of the upper chambers of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into a ventricle
Ventricle A chamber of an organ. For example, one of the two lower chambers of the heart
Capillaries The tiny blood vessels throughout the body that connect arteries and veins
Arteries Any of the muscular elastic tubes that form a branching system and that carry blood away from the heart to the cells, tissues, and organs of the body.
Veins Any of the membranous tubes that form a branching system and carry blood to the heart
Neuron Any of the impulse-conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column, and nerves, consisting of a nucleated cell body with one or more dendrites and a single axon. Also called nerve cell.
Central nervous system The portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral nervous system The part of the vertebrate nervous system that includes the cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
Somatic nervous system The portion of the nervous system concerned with the control of voluntary muscle and relating the organism with its environment.
Autonomic nervous system The part of the vertebrate nervous system that regulates involuntary action, as of the intestines, heart, and glands, and that is divided into the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.
Sensory division Transmits impulses from sense organs to the central nervous system
Motor division Transmits impulses from the central nervous system to the muscles or glands
Immune system The integrated body system of organs, tissues, cells, and cell products such as antibodies that differentiates self from non-self and neutralizes potentially pathogenic organisms or substances
Integumentary system The bodily system consisting of the skin and its associated structures, such as the hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands
Lymphatic system The interconnected system of spaces and vessels between body tissues and organs by which lymph circulates throughout the body
Endocrine system The bodily system that consists of the endocrine glands and functions to regulate body activities
Glands A cell, a group of cells, or an organ that produces a secretion for use elsewhere in the body or in a body cavity or for elimination from the body
Created by: darrin_evans