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Chapter 5 Stack

TermDefinition
Active Transport the movement of materials across a membrane through the use of cellular energy, normally against a concentration gradient.
Aquaporins “water pores”; specialized water channels.
Attachment Protein anchor the cell membrane in various ways, such as binding the plasma membrane to the network of protein filaments within the cytoplasm (cytoskeleton).
Carrier Protein a membrane protein that facilitates the diffusion of specific substances across the membrane. The molecule to be transported binds to the outer surface of the carrier protein; the protein then changes shape, allowing the molecule to move across the membra
Channel Protein a membrane protein that forms a channel or pore completely through the membrane and that is usually permeable to one or to a few water-soluble molecules, especially ions.
Concentration the number of particles of a dissolved substance in a given unit of volume.
Concentration Gradient the difference in concentration of a substance between two parts of a fluid or across a barrier such as a membrane.
Desmosome a strong cell-to-cell junction that attaches adjacent cells to one another.
Diffusion the net movement of particles from a region of high concentration of that particle to a region of low concentration, driven by the concentration gradient; may occur entirely within a fluid or across a barrier such as a membrane.
Endocytosis the process in which the plasma membrane engulfs extracellular material, forming membrane-bound sacs that enter the cytoplasm and thereby move material into the cell.
Enzyme a protein catalyst that speeds up the rate of specific biological reactions.
Exocytosis the process in which intracellular material is enclosed within a membrane-bound sac that moves to the plasma membrane and fuses with it, releasing the material outside the cell.
Facilitated Diffusion the diffusion of molecules across a membrane, assisted by protein pores or carriers embedded in the membrane.
Fluid a liquid or gas.
Fluid Mosaic Model a model of membrane structure; according to this model, membranes are composed of a double layer of phospholipids in which various proteins are embedded. The phospholipid bilayer is a somewhat fluid matrix that allows the movement of proteins within it.
Gap Junction a type of cell-to-cell junction in animals in which channels connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells.
Glycoprotein a protein to which a carbohydrate is attached.
Gradient a difference in concentration, pressure, or electrical charge between two regions.
Hypertonic referring to a solution that has a higher concentration of dissolved particles (and therefore a lower concentration of free water) than has the cytoplasm of a cell.
Isotonic referring to a solution that has the same concentration of dissolved particles (and therefore the same concentration of free water) as has the cytoplasm of a cell.
Osmosis the diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane, normally down a concentration gradient of free water molecules. Water moves into the solution that has a lower concentration of free water from a solution with the higher concentration of
Passive Transport the movement of materials across a membrane down a gradient of concentration, pressure, or electrical charge without using cellular energy.
Phagocytosis a type of endocytosis in which extensions of a plasma membrane engulf extracellular particles and transport them into the interior of the cell.
Phospholipid Bilayer a double layer of phospholipids that forms the basis of all cellular membranes. The phospholipid heads, which are hydrophilic, face the water of extracellular fluid or the cytoplasm; the tails, which are hydrophobic, are buried in the middle of the bilaye
Pinocytosis the non selective movement of extracellular fluid, enclosed within a vesicle formed from the plasma membrane, into a cell.
Plasmodesmata a cell-to-cell junction in plants that connects the cytoplasm of adjacent cells.
Plasmolysis a process in which the central vacuole and cytosol of each plant cell loses water and the plasma membrane shrinks away from its cell wall as the vacuole collapses.
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis the selective uptake of molecules from the extracellular fluid by binding to a receptor located at a coated pit on the plasma membrane and pinching off the coated pit into a vesicle that moves into the cytoplasm.
Receptor Protein a protein, located on a membrane (or in the cytoplasm), that recognizes and binds to specific molecules. Binding by receptor proteins typically triggers a response by a cell, such as endocytosis, increased metabolic rate, or cell division.
Recognition Protein a protein or glycoprotein protruding from the outside surface of a plasma membrane that identifies a cell as belonging to a particular species, to a specific individual of that species, and in many cases to one specific organ within the individual.
Selectively Permeable the quality of a membrane that allows certain molecules of ions to move through it more readily than others.
Simple Diffusion The diffusion of water, dissolved gases, or liquid-soluble molecules through the phospholipid bilayer of a cellular membrane.
Solute a substance that can be dissolved
Solvent a liquid capable of dissolving (uniformly dispersing) other substances in itself.
Tight Junction a type of cell-to-cell junction in animals that prevents the movement of materials through the spaces between cells.
Transport Protein a protein that regulates the movement of water-soluble molecules through the plasma membrane.
Turgor Pressure pressure developed within a cell (especially the central vacuole of plant cells) as a result of osmotic water entry.
Created by: maddiereynolds