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Maddie's Study Stack

Aerobic With oxygen
Anaerobic Without oxygen
Archaea one of the simplest life forms on Earth. They form part of the archaebacteria kingdom. Commonly found in the most extreme areas on earth. They are prokaryotes and lack a nucleus.
Bacteria another one of the simplest life forms on Earth. They form a large portion of prokaryotic microbes.
Basal body an organelle that forms the base of cilia and flagella
Central vacuole an organelle in a plant cell that is filled with mostly water and is involved in the regulation of the amount of water in a cell. The vacuole provides a landfill for wastes that plant cells often can’t excrete. They can also store sugars and amino acids f
Centriole an organelle that creates spindle fibers which are essential for equal distribution of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis.
Chlorophyll a green pigment exist in plant and algae which give them green color as well as other pigment molecules.
Chloroplast highly specialized plastids organelles surrounded by a double membrane,and contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
Chromatin nuclear material. A complex of DNA and proteins that forms chromosomes within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, meaning “colored substance”.
Cilium a short, microscopic, hairlike vibrating structure.
Contractile vacuole composed of collecting ducts, a central reservoir, and a tube leading to a pore in the plasma membrane.
Cytoplasm consist of all the material and structures that lie inside the plasma membrane, but outside the region of the cell that contains DNA.
Cytoskeleton a network of protein fibers, gives shape and organization to the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
Cytosol the aqueous component of the cytoplasm of a cell, within which various organelles and particles are suspended.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane. It usually has ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis.
Endosymbiont Hypothesis the hypothesis that certain organelles, especially chloroplasts and mitochondria, arose as mutually beneficial associations between the ancestors of eukaryotic cells and captured bacteria that lived within the cytoplasm of the pre-eukaryotic cell.
Eukaryotic referring to cells of organisms of the domain Eukarya (plants, animals, fungi, and protists). Eukaryotic cells have genetic material enclosed within a membrane-bound nucleus and contain other membrane-bound organelles.
Flagellum a long hairlike extension of the plasma membrane; in eukaryotic cells, it contains microtubules arranged in a 9 +2 pattern. The movement of flagella propel some cells through fluids.
Food Vacuole a membrane sac, within a single cell. in which food is enclosed. Digestive enzymes are released into the vacuole,where intracellular digestion occurs.
Golgi apparatus specialized set of membranes, derived from the endoplasmic reticulum, that looks like a stack of flattened and interconnected sacs.
Intermediate filament part of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells that probably functions mainly for support and is composed of several types of proteins.
Lysosome a membrane-bound organelle containing intracellular digestive enzymes
Microfilament part of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells that is composed of the proteins actin and (in some cases) myosin; functions in the movement of cell organelles and in locomotion by extension of the plasma membrane.
Microtubule a hollow, cylindrical strand, found in eukaryotic cells, that is composed of the protein tubulin; part of the cytoskeleton used in movement of organelles, cell growth, and the construction of cilia and flagella
Mitochondrion an organelle, bounded by two membranes, that is the site of the reaction of aerobic metabolism.
Nuclear envelope the double-membrane system surrounding the nucleus of eukaryotic cells; the outer membrane is typically continuous with the endiokasmnuc reticulum.
Nucleoid the location of the genetic material; in prokaryotic cells;not membrane-enclosed.
Nucleolus an object in a cell that consists of ribosomal RNA, proteins, ribosomes, and DNA and is involved in making ribosomes
Nucleus an organelle that contains the Dna of a eukaryotic cell
Organelle membrane-enclosed structures that perform specific functions within a cell
Plasma membrane a structure enclosing the cell that consists of a double layer of phospholipid molecules where various proteins reside
Plastid organelles found only in plants and photosynthetic protists
Prokaryotic a type of cell in which the genetic material is not enclosed within a membrane
Ribonucleic acid(RNA) a substance in all cells that comes in various forms, copies the order of nucleotides on DNA and helps make proteins based on the order shown in DNA.
Ribosome a small particle composed of RNA and proteins that can synthesize any of the proteins made by a cell
Vacuole sacs of cell membrane filled with fluid containing various molecules
Vesicle membrane sacs that carry membranes and specialized contents among separate regions of the membrane system
Created by: maddiereynolds



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