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Nervous System

TermDefinition
Axon processes that carry information away from the cell body
Myelin a white insulating sheath around some nerve fibers that increases the speed of the impulse
cell body the part of the neuron with the nucleus and metabolic machinery (like mitochondria)
dendrites process that carry information to the cell body
axon terminals the ends of the axon that produce and release the neurotransmitters
motor neuron a neuron that carries impulses from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland
sensory neuron a neuron that carries impulses from a receptor to the brain or spinal cord.
interneuron a neuron that transmits impulses between other neurons
Central nervous system the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system the cranial and peripheral nerves including motor and sensory neurons. Two divisions: motor and sensory
afferent division Sensory input
efferent division motor output
reflex arc simple, automatic response
neurotransmitter chemical signals such as acetylcholine and epinephrine
synapse gap between a neuron and another cell through which information is passed
5 components of reflex arc stimulus, sensory (afferent) neuron, interneuron, motor (efferent) neuron, effector
Divisions of the motor system Somatic (voluntary) and Autonomic (involuntary)
Somatic motor division Motor neurons innervating skeletal muscle
Autonomic division Motor neurons innervating glands, cardiac and smooth muscle. Contains the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
Sympathetic nervous system Part of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for flight/flight or action by accelerating heart rate, increasing breathing etc.
Parasympathetic nervous system part of the autonomic nervous system that conserves energy and is active during "rest and digest". Slows heart, constricts pupils but increases digestive activity.
Fight or flight response a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival that activates the sympathetic nervous system.
integration combining information from different sources (visual, touch, olfactory etc) in the CNS. Information processing.
Functional classification of neurons Classification by "job". Sensory, motor and interneurons.
Structural classification of neurons Classification by structures such as # of dendrites or axons. Examples include multipolar and pseudounipolar
Schwann cell A neuroglial cell that wraps around axons creating myelination. This results in faster transmission of impulse. Myelinated axons are "white" matter in the CNS.
Neuroglandular junction a synapse between a neuron and gland tissue
Neuromuscular junction a synapse between a neuron and muscle tissue
Ion gradient difference in ion concentration and electrical potential from one point to another, so that ions tend to move passively along it, usually across a membrane.
Resting membrane potential the difference in voltage of the fluids inside a cell and outside a cell, which is usually between -70 to -80 millivolts (mV).
Voltage gated channel ion channels in the membrane that are activated (opened) by changes in electrical membrane potential near the channel.
Depolarization a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge
Repolarization a change within the cell during which the cell returns to a negative state usually about -70 mv.
Hyperpolarization a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative. It is the opposite of depolarization.
Action Potential brief (about one-thousandth of a second) reversal of electric polarization of the membrane of a nerve cell (neuron) or muscle cell while a nerve impulse travels along the cell
Refractory period a period immediately following stimulation during which a nerve or muscle is unresponsive to further stimulation
Threshold the magnitude or intensity of a stimulus that must be exceeded for an action potential to occur. Usually about -55 mv
Parts of the brain cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, brain stem
Protections of the brain cranium, meninges, cerebral spinal fluid
Meninges membranes covering the brain that have blood vessels and CSF and serve to protect the brain. Pia mater, arachnoid and dura mater
Order of meninges outside to in Dura, arachnoid, pia
CSF cerebral spinal fluid produced in the brain from blood. Provides shock absorption, nutrients and waste removal.
Created by: PRO Teacher jhaase