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Biology Terms

QuestionAnswer
Archegonium structure on a female gametophyte that bears a single megaspore (egg) cell.
Antheridium structure on a male gametophyte that bears many sperm cells.
bryophyte An informal name for a moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that lives on land but lacks some of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants.
heterosporous Referring to a plant species that has two kinds of spores: microspores, which develop into male gametophytes, and megaspores, which develop into female gametophytes.
homosporous Referring to a plant species that has a single kind of spore, which typically develops into a bisexual gametophyte.
liverwort A small, herbaceous, nonvascular plant that is a member of the phylum Hepatophyta.
megaspore A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a female gametophyte.
microspore A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a male gametophyte.
Spore haploid cell that will give rise to haploid individuals capable of forming gametes.
Sporangium structure that encloses the cells that have undergone meiosis to form spores.
blade (1) A leaflike structure of a seaweed that provides most of the surface area for photosynthesis. (2) The flattened portion of a typical leaf.
dinoflagellate Member of a group of mostly unicellular photosynthetic algae with two flagella situated in perpendicular grooves in cellulose plates covering the cell.
Excavata One of five supergroups of eukaryotes; have unique cytoskeletal features, and some species have an “excavated” feeding groove on one side of the cell body. See also Chromalveolata, Rhizaria, Archaeplastida, and Unikonta
pseudopodium A cellular extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding.
radiolarian A protist, usually marine, with a shell generally made of silica and pseudopodia that radiate from the central body.
Rhizaria One of five supergroups of eukaryotes; a morphologically diverse protist clade that is defined by DNA similarities. See also Excavata, Chromalveolata, Archaeplastida, and Unikonta.
thallus The study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter. See first law of thermodynamics; second law of thermodynamics.
Unikonta One of five supergroups of eukaryotes. This clade, which is supported by studies of myosin proteins and DNA, consists of amoebozoans and opisthokonts. See also Excavata, Chromalveolata, Rhizaria, and Archaeplastida.
basal taxon In a specified group of organisms, a taxon whose evolutionary lineage diverged early in the history of the group.
branch point The representation on a phylogenetic tree of the divergence of 2 or more taxa from a common ancestor; usually shown as a dichotomy in which a branch representing the ancestral lineage splits into two branches, one for each of the two descendant lineages.
clade A group of species that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants.
outgroup A species or group of species from an evolutionary lineage that is known to have diverged before the lineage that contains the group of species being studied; is selected so that its members are closely related to the group of species being studied
monophyletic Pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and all of its descendants. A monophyletic taxon is equivalent to a clade.
Xylem conducts most of the water and minerals and includes dead cells called tracheids
Phloem consists of living cells and distributes sugars, amino acids, and other organic products
Roots are organs that anchor vascular plants
Leaves are organs that increase the surface area of vascular plants, thereby capturing more solar energy that is used for photosynthesis
Microphylls leaves with a single vein
Megaphylls leaves with a highly branched vascular system
Sporophylls are modified leaves with sporangia
Sori are clusters of sporangia on the undersides of sporophylls
Strobili are cone-like structures formed from groups of sporophylls
homosporous seedless vascular plants that produce one type of spore that develops into a bisexual gametophyte
heterosporous All seed plants and some seedless vascular plants
Phylum Lycophyta type of phyla of seedless vascular plants; includes club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts
Phylum Pterophyta type of phyla of seedless vascular plants; includes ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns and their relatives
ovule consists of a megasporangium, megaspore, and one or more protective integuments
pollen grains what microspores develop into; contain the male gametophytes
Pollination the transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant containing the ovules
Sepals enclose the flower
Petals are brightly colored and attract pollinators
Stamens produce pollen
Carpels produce ovules
anther where the pollen is produced
Double fertilization when the pollen tube discharges two sperm into the female gametophyte within an ovule
Created by: danat214