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MPH Exam 1

Medicinal Plants and Herbs Exam 1 Terminology

TermDefinition
Terpenoids The oldest group of small molecules, like camphor, synthesized by plants from isopentenyl diphosphate IPP metabolic control and are involved in mediating intra- and inter-species interactions like pollination and defense in plants
Tonic A drink traditionally used to increase vitality like sassafras tea
Alkaloids Usually a small, heavily derivatized amino acid like atropine produced by Belladonna (Atropa belladonna), cocaine, morphine, or caffeine
Steroids The molecule is composed of four rings that are joined together made from the cyclization of the triterpene squalene. Some phytosterols in thi group of compounds have cholesterol-lowering properties
Glucosides Heavily modified sugar molecules like ginsenosides or panaxosides produced by Panix ginseng or P. quinquefolia
Phenols Hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic (ring structure) hydrocarbon group in compounds such as salicylic acid biosynthesized in willow trees from the amino acid phenylalanine
Primary Metabolite Consists of processes leading to production of sugars, amino acids, lipids (storage reserve, constituents of plant membranes, nutritional elements) and nucleotides (genetic material) required for normal plant growth and development
Phenazines (anthraquinone-derivatives) Complex aromatic compounds containing many attached ring structures such hypericin, pseudohypericin, and hyperforin produced by St. John's wort
Vitamins Organic compounds that are necessary for body metabolism and, generally, must be provided from the diet, commonly from plants
Secondary Metabolite Organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development or reproduction of organisms
Created by: formula1fan