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Chapter 6

anatomy and physiology

Frontal/Coronal Plane divides the body into front and back portions
Transverse/Axial Plane divides the body into top and bottom portions
Sagittal/Lateral Plane divides the body into (unequal) left and right halves
Midsagittal Plane divides the body into equal left and right halves
Ligaments connect bone to bone
tendons connect bone to muscle
axial skeleton skull, facial bones, thoracic cage, and vertebrae
appendicular skeleton shoulder, arms, pelvis, and legs
mandible lower jaw
orbit eye socket; made up of maxilla and zygoma
cervical spine C1-C7
"Atlas" C1
"Axis" C2
thoracic spine T1-T12
lumbar spine L1-L5
Sacrum five sacral vertebra fused together
coccyx four coccygeal vertebra fused together
manubrium upper section of the sternum
xiphoid process lower, cartilaginous tip of the sternum
bones of the arm humerus, ulna, radius
bones of the pelvis ilium, ischium, pubis
bones of the leg femur, tibia, fibula
function of the skeletal system body shape, protection, movement
three types of muscle skeletal, cardiac, smooth
function of the muscular system movement, heat, and protection
structures of the upper airway nose, mouth, tongue, jaw, pharynx, larynx
structures of the lower airway trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
epiglottis leaf-shaped flap that prevents food and liquid from entering the trachea
pleura layer of tissue covering the lungs
ventilation movement of air in and out of the lungs
respiration process of gas exchange
diffusion movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
chemical control of breathing there is a buildup of CO2, then a decrease in CSF pH, which causes the brain to stimulate the phrenic nerve which contracts the diaphragm
hypoxic drive brain regulates breathing based on oxygen levels (normally we breath in response to CO2 levels)
tidal volume amount of air moving in or out of the lungs in a breath
dead space portion of respiratory system that has no alveoli, so now gas exchange occurs
characteristics of normal breathing normal rate x depth, regular pattern, audible breath sounds, regular rise and fall
labored breathing effortful breathing, muscle retractions, pale/cyanotic skin, cool/clammy skin, tripod position
agonal gasps may occur during cardiac arrest. not adequate.
blood flow through the heart body --> s/i vena cava --> right atrium --> right ventricle --> pulmonary artery --> lungs --> pulmonary vein --> left atrium --> left ventricle --> aorta --> body
pulse points radial (wrist), brachial (upper arm), carotid (neck), femoral (groin), posterior tibial (ankle), dorsalis pedis (top of foot)
systolic pressure blood pressure when the ventricles are contracting
diastolic pressure blood pressure when the heart is relaxed
perfusion adequate blood flow to the cells/tissues of the body
shock a state of inadequate circulation (hypoperfusion)
epinephrine hormone that activates the sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight response), causing increase HR, BP, and bronchodilation
central nervous system the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system all other nerves. consists of the motor and sensory division
motor division of the peripheral nervous system consists of the autonomic and the somatic nervous systems
autonomic nervous system consists of the sympathetic (fight or flight) and parasympathetic (rest and digest) nervous systems
cerebellum responsible for specific body movements like writing and drawing
organs of the digestive system mouth, esophagus, salivary glands, pharynx, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, rectum, and anus
function of the pancreas produces hormones like insulin and glucagon
insulin hormone that allows sugar to enter the cells, thus lowering blood sugar
Created by: mlscott7