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Bio 120 Exam 1

What is Science? Science is a way of explaining the natural world
Scientific Method observation, question, hypothesis (testable & falsifiable), Experimental design, Data collection& analysis, conclusion
Two types of Scientific Inquiry 1. Discovery Science(Going out in the world to observe) 2. Hypothesis-based science(Doing in a lab)
An example of Discovery Science is? Jane Goodall
What is Biology? Study of life (living organisms) OR An Inquiry into the study of life
What is Life? 1. Carbon 2. Reproduction/Death 3. Development & Growth 4. Energy processing 5. Cells (Not living if not composed of cells) 6. Response to environment 7. Homeostasis 8. Order 9. Evolves (changes)
Are viruses living? According to the Bio definition no.
What are the most common element s found in living matter? Carbon-Oxygen-Hydrogen-Nitrogen
What other important elements are found in living matter? Phosphorus-Sulfur-Calcium-Potassium-Chlorine-Magnesium
Define an atom. Smallest unit of an element
Define an element. Can not be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions.
What is an isotope? When the neutron number does not equal the proton number.
What are the subatomic particles and their charges? Electrons-Negative Neutrons-Neutral Protons-Positive
How many electrons must the first shell have? 2 electrons
Any shell after the first shell needs how many electrons? 8 electrons to be happy or stable
The inner shell will have less or more energy? Less energy but more energy potencial as you move on.
What are valence electrons? Outer most shell electrons
Ionic Bonds ... Donate electrons and are a weak bond
Cations are Positive after bonding
Anions are Negative after bonding
What are covalent bonds? Cooperation- Sharing physical link-Strong Bonds
Structure determines... FUNCTION
An example of a polar covalent bonds is Hydrogen Bond
Polar covalent bonds... Negative in Charge- Portions are slightly negative portions are slightly positive.
A Hydrogen bond... Weak bond-NOT PHYSICALLY ATTACHED- Polar Covalent Hydrogen bond exist between two molecules- Between two waters- CANNOT have it between atom hydrogen and oxygen
A molecular mimic Similar in shape the endorphin receptors will let into the body. Ex. Morphin/opids have the same shape as Natural endorphin
What are the Characteristics of Water? 1 Polar(Polar Covalent Bond)- Cohesion-Adhesion and Surface tension 2 Moderation of temperature 3 Water is the solvent of life
What is Cohesion of water? Collectively, the hydrogen bonds hold the substance together---- Contributes to the transport of water and dissolved nutrients against gravity in plants
What is Adhesion of water? The clinging of one substance to another----Attraction between water molecules and surfaces.
What is Surface Tension? Measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
What is water's specific heat? Water has a high specific heat. Meaning it takes a long time to warm up and takes a long time to cool down.
What is Specific Heat? How much heat can be gained or lost per gram of substance.
What is a solute? What's being dissolved in a solution
What is a Solvent? The dissolving agent in a solution----Water is the UNIVERSAL solvent
What does Hydrophilic mean? Things that LOVE water EX. Ions(Salts) and Polar molecules
What does Hydrophobic mean? Things that DO NOT LOVE water EX. Vegetable oil and Nonpolarmolecules
Why do we need Hydrophobic things? Because not everything needs to be dissolved.
Characteristics of Chemical Reactions. <--> Means forwards and backwards Matter has just been rearranged by the breaking and making of chemical bonds, Not created nor destroyed
Strong acids do what in water? Completely dissociate
Homeostasis requires reactions to occur in what direction? Both directions
Weak acids... Weak acids act as buffers. Weak base accepts H+ from solutions lowering the H+ concentration of the solution. Weak acid donates a H+ to solution raising the H+ concentration of the solution.
pH Scale is testing what? H+ concentration
If the pH goes up... the H+ Concentration goes down
If the pH is too low... Raise the pH by taking H+ out of the solution.
To lower the pH when the pH is too high... Put H+ in the solution
7.4 is the pH of what? Blood
How many valence electrons does Carbon have? tetra-valence OR 4 electrons It's versatile
What is an Isomer? 2 different molecules, same chemical formula
What are variations n carbon skeletons? Length-Branching-Double Bonds-Rings
What are the three types of isomers? Structural-Geometric-Enantiomers
Enantiomers Are mirror images
Cis geometric isomers Have like atoms attached on the same side of the carbon skeleton
Trans geometric isomers Have like atoms attached on opposite sides of the carbon skeleton
Structural isomers Differ in carbon arrangement
What are the six functional groups? Hydroxyl-Carbonyl-Carboxyl-Amino-Sulfhydryl-Phosphate
Is methyl considered a Functional groups? Methyl
Hydroxyl -OH--Polarity Covalent bonded-Great dissolving agents-Can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules
Carbonyl Double bonded-Ketone-Aldehyde
What is an Aldehyde? Carbonyl group is connected to a TERMINAL carbon. Aldose=sugar
What is a Ketone? Carbonyl group is connected to any INTERNAL carbons Ketose=Sugar
Carboxyl Oxygen is double bonded to a carbon and a Hydroxyl is bonded to the SAME carbon
Amino group -NH2 Neurotransmitter- Acts as a base & will accept H+ from solution
Sulfhydryl -S-H Helps stabilize protein structure
Phosphate Group One oxygen must be doubt;e bonded and one must be connected to a carbon. Make up Membranes. Has a potential to react with water releasing energy.
Methyl Group NOT A FUNCTIONAL GROUP Biological tag-Recognition and gene expression -CH3
What are the four classes of Large Biological Molecules? Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids, Lipids
Are Lipids Macromolecules? No, they don't have subunits(Monomers) that are similar.
Macromolecules... Polymers of monomers Covalent bonds
What is dehydration? Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond. Use to make a bond.
What is Hydrolysis? Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond.
Carbohydrates... Composed of carbon-hydrogen-oxygen Serve as fuel and building materials for the cell
What are Monosaccharides? Simplest form of carbohydrates Glucose, frutose, Galactose
What are Disaccharide? Double sugar consisting of 2 monosaccharides...joined by a dehydration reaction Sucrose, maltose, lactose
What are Polysaccharides? Polymer of many sugar monomers Starch, glycogen
What is the type of linkage for a Carbohydrate? Glycosidic linkages
Proteins are built from what monomer or components? Amino acids
Kinds of proteins... Enzymes(Speed up chemical reactions)Storage(Protein in egg whites are stored amino acid source for developing embryo)Transport(Hemoglobin)Communication(Insulin regulating concentration of glucose in blood)Movement(Muscle contractions)Immune system(antibod
Polypeptides? Formed from a dehydration reaction. Monomer=Peptide Polymer of the monomer
Type of linkage in a protein? polypeptides
Protein structure Shape specific
Four types of protein structure? Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary
Primary Structure... Drives everything else Matters what order the amino acids are in Instructions are from DNA
Secondary Structure... ALL Hydrogen bonds Hydrogen bonds: Between Amino groups and Carboxyl groups of Non-peptide bonded amino acids Beta pleated sheets & Amino Acid Subunits
Tertiary Structure... ALL about "R" groups Hydrogen bonds -between R groups Ionic Bonds- weak bonds Hydrophobic interactions- fall to the inside Disulfide bridge-Covalent bond, Strong bond
Quaternary Structure... Proteins composed of more than one polypeptide chain (Something large like hemoglobin)
Other factors that determine a protein's shape... Physical conditions of the environment(Temperature) Chemical conditions of the environment(Salt,pH)
What happens if you boil a protein? It is permanently denatured
What happens if you freeze a protein then warm it up? When you freeze a protein it becomes denatured. If you warm the protein back up it becomes active. (Frostbite)
Are proteins affected by pH? Proteins ARE affected by pH Stomach's pH around 2 Large intestine's pH around 8
What can happen if a protein doesn't fold right away? If the right one doesn't fold right away can cause ALS
Nucleic Acids... Link to a protein DNA RNA DNA-->RNA-->Protein
Nucleic Acid Structure? 5 Bases Purines-2 Rings Pyrimidines-1 Ring
Three differences between DNA and RNA? 1. Ribose has TWO hydroxyl groups 2. Base Swapout 3. DNA is double stranded
What is the monomer and linkage of a Nucleic Acid? Nucleotide are the monomers and Phosphodiester linkage
Lipids... Not a Macromolecule--NO monomers Smaller Mostly non polar (Hydrophobic) Ex. Fats, Phospholipids, steroids
Fats.. One head (Glycerol) and three tails (Fatty acids) Triacylglycerol is Polymer Fatty Acids is monomer The linkage is Ester linkages
Saturated versus Unsaturated Saturated=Bad Unsaturated=Good Saturation refers to the number of HYDROGENS Unsaturated helps membrane sheath(Covering on a nerve shell)
Trans Fat The process of hydrogenation convert fatty acid double bonds from a cis to a trans configuration.
Phospholipids vs. Fats Phospholipid-Only have two tails, Nonpolar tai and polar head Fats-Non polar
Phospholipids: cell membranes Backbone of the plasma membrane
Steroids Four Rings Hormones Cholesterol
Do cells have a size limit? -There is a limited amount of a substance that can cross a plasma membrane per second. -For every increase in surface area the volume increase is larger than the Surface area increase
Prokaryotic Cell Smaller, Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, DNA, Nucleoid Region, Ribosomes, only has one membrane
Eukaryotic Cell Larger, Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, DNA, Nucleus, Ribosomes, Membranes & organelles
Endomembrane System Components? 1. Nuclear Envelope 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum 3. Golgi Apparatus 4. Plasma Membrane 5. Vacuoles 6. Lysosomes (animals cells only)
Endomembrane System... -Regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in cell -Membranes of this system are either directly physically linked or linked through membrane segments called vesicles. -Physically Connected
Nucleus Nucleolus: make or produces *Synthesis of RNA-->Ribosomal Chromatin: Un-condense Chromosomes Nuclear Pore Complex: Pores, inner nuclear envelope, outer envelope ---Pores: Regulate macromolecules and RNA movement in & out of the nucleus
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Three Parts: Smooth ER, Rough ER, Transitional ER Made up of all membranes
Smooth ER Functions LACKS RIBOSOMES 1. Synthesis of lipids 2. Metabolizes Carbohydrates 3.Calcium Storage 4. Detoxification of Drugs & Poisons Adds -OH to the drug/poison Liver
Rough ER Functions 1. Produces new membrane for its structure and the cell 2. Aids in the synthesis of secretory proteins(aka will leave cell)
Transitional ER Function Pinches off sections of the membrane (vesicles) to enclose molecules for transport through the cell and to the plasma membrane. ONLY used for movement
Golgi Apparatus Entrance through the Cis Face and Exit through the Trans face. Receiving, Processing, and shipping Glycoprotein(Carb)-->Alters the structure-->Address tag=Phosphate group--> Docking site or outgoing vesicles
Vacuoles In animals: Food Vacuole Central Vacuole: Storage unit for water, ions, pigment. Tugor pressure...ONLY in plants
Lysosomes Membrane sac of hydrolytic (Digestive) enzymes. Used for intracellular digestion
The cytoskeleton 3 Parts; Microtubule, Microfilaments, & Intermediate Filaments Network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm
Function of the cytoskeleton Maintains shape of cell. Motility of the cell & vesitcal inside the cell regulation: response to external mechanical stimulation. CompressionResistance & Tension bearing.
Microtubules Movement of Vesicles Motility within the cytoskeleton Movement of chromosomes (Spindle Fibers composed of microtubules) Cilia formed by microtubules Proteins help with movement by connecting microtubules
Microfilaments Tension Bearing Myosin motors in muscle contraction Outside has lots of microfilaments & inside is more liquid Squeezing a toothpaste bottle Amoeboid movement Squeezing action internally
Cytokinesis Microfilaments divided by cytoplasm
Intermediate Filaments Tension bearing Hold organelles stationary-NO MOVEMENT
Extracellular Matrix (ECM)-Animals Composed of collagen, fibronectins, interns, and proteoglycan complex
Intercellular Junctions Plant cells: Plasmodesmata Animal Cells: Tight Junctions, Desmosomes, and Gap Junctions
Plasmodesmata Channels connecting the cytoplasm of cell number 1 wth the cytoplasm of cell number 2 Water, macromolecules, RNA, Solutes pass freely
Tight Junctions Form continuos seal around the cell and prevent leakage of extracellular fluid
Desmosomes Anchoring junctions; Muscle cells= strength
Communicating Junctions Gap Junctions
Collagen Tissue strength and cushioning
Fibronectin Tissue Repair and Blood clotting Attaches the ECM to integrins embedded in the plasma membrane
Proteoglycan Complex Protein and Carbohydrate-->Trees-->With-stand compression forces
Integrins Touches inside and outside of cell Membrane proteins that are bound to the ECM on one side and to associated proteins attached to microfilaments on the other. This linkage can transmit stimuli between the cell's external environment and it's interior
Membranes The plasma membrane separates interior of a cell from its surrounding environment. Selectively permeable Fluid mosaics of lipids and proteins(Not stationary or solid) Membranes with different functions differ in chemical composition and structure.
Membranes Structure All membranes have a primary structure or the all have the same basic components. Different Proteins for different membranes Proteins are ALL about functions of the membrane
Function of Membrane Proteins -Transport -Enzymatic Activity -Signal Transduction -Cell-cell Recognition -Intercellular Joining -Attachment to Cytoskeleton and ECM
Transport (Membranes are selectively permeable) -Molecules & Ions Move back & fourth across the membrane Move different rates based on their characteristics (Size, Concentration gradient, charge...) May/May not require energy to move across membrane
Diffusion The movement of a solute from a High concentration to a lower concentration
(Diffusion) Dynamic Equilibrium The solute molecules continue to cross the membrane, but at equal rates in both directions---(They don't stop)
Passive transport NO Energy
Osmosis The movement of the solvent (Water) from a less concentration gradient to a higher concentration gradient
Hypotonic Solution A solution that has less solute and more water than another solution Animal Cell; Red Blood cell=Lysed(Burst) Plant Cell; Turgid or normal
Hypertonic Solution A solution that has a greater concentration of solutes on the outside of a cell when compared with the inside of a cell. Animal Cell; RBC=Shriveled Plant Cell; Plasmolyzed (HATE)
Isotonic Solution Two solutions having the same osmotic pressure across a semipermeable membrane. This state allows for the free movement of water across the membrane without changing the concentration of solutes on either side. RBC=LOVE (Normal) Plant Cell=Flaccid
Facilitated Diffusion Using a protein Channel Protein Carrier Protein=Allows proteins to pass
Protein that H2O uses... Aquaporins
Active Transport Requires energy Moving a solute against its concentration gradient Uses a carrier protein/ Protein pump
Enzymes -Speed up rate of reactions (Catalyst) -Proteins -Shape Specific
Enzymatic Activity Only receive what the the cell wants (Shape Specific )
Signal Transduction Moving the signal from outside to inside
Cell to cell Recognition Glycoprotein 1. Sorting of cells into tissues and organs during embryonic development 2. Identification and rejection of foreign cells by the immune system -HIV Receptors
Intercellular Joining Through proteins-Gap Junctions All with proteins
Exocytosis -Transport of large molecules from inside the cell to outside the cell -When something does leave it's called exocytosis
Endocytosis -Transport of large molecules from outside the cell to inside the cell Comes through a vesicle
Phagocytosis Transport "Food" or other particles in the cell through a food vacuole
Pinocytosis Non-specific glup
Receptor-mediated Specific sip
Created by: foreverbee15



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