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Biology Chap.3.2

Basic terms for Honors Biology, Grade 9

Organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ration of about 1:2:1, but they vary Carbohydrate
A monomer of a carbohydrate; also known as a simple sugar, that contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen 1:2:1 Monosaccharide
The term for a double sugar, or two monosaccharides combined in a condensation reaction Disaccharide
A complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides Polysaccharide
Organic compounds composed of mainly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen Protein
When linked, these monomers create proteins Amino Acid
When two amino acids for a covalent bond in a condensation reaction, they are called a- Peptide Bond
When amino acids form very long chains they are called- Polypeptide
RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts that are essential for the functioning of any cell Enzyme
The reactant that is being catalyzed in an enzyme reaction Substrate
The folds, or parts of the enzyme/substrate where they meet in the reaction Active Site
Large, nonpolar organic molecules that do not dissolve in water Lipid
Unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids Fatty Acid
A type of lipid, among phospholipids, steroids, waxes and pigments Triglyceride
have two instead of three fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol Phospholipid
A type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain Wax
Molecules composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them -not composed of fatty acids Steroid
Very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell Nucleic Acid
Contains information that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs its cell activities Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins; some act as enzymes Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
The term for the monomers that make up DNA and RNA, and has three main components: a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a ring-shaped nitrogenous base Nucleotide
Created by: EmilyEdwards