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Molecules of Life

3.2 Terms

carbohydrate any organic compound that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and that provides nutrients to the cells of living things
monosaccharide a simple sugar that is the basic subunit, or monomer, of a carbohydrate
disaccharide a sugar formed from two monosaccharides
polysaccharide one of the carbohydrates made up of long chains of simple sugars; polysaccharides include starch, cellulose, and glycogen
protein an organic compound that is made up of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
amino acid an organic molecule that contains a carboxyl and an amino group and that makes up proteins; a protein monomer
peptide bond the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
polypeptide a long chain of several amino acids
enzyme a type of protein or RNA molecule that speeds metabolic reactions in plant and animals without being permanently changed or destroyed
substrate a part, substance, or element, that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
active site the site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
lipid a large, nonpolar organic molecule, including fats and steroids; lipids store energy and make up cell membranes
fatty acid an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils
triglyceride a lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphorous and that is a structural component in cell membranes
wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain that is joined to a long alcohol chain
steroid a type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings to which various functional groups are attached and that usually has a physiological action
nucleic acid an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
ribonucleic acid (RNA) a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
nucleotide in a nucleic-acid chain, a sub-unit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
Created by: mitschj20