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3.2 Study Stack

carbohydrate any organic compound that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and that provides nutrients to the cells of living things
monosaccharide a simple sugar that is basic subunit of a carb
disaccharide a sugar formed from 2 monosaccharides
polysaccharide one of the carbs made up of long chains of simple sugars; includes starch, cellulose, and glycogen
protein an organic compound that is made up of 1 or more chains of amino acids and that is a principle component of all cells
amino acid any 1 of 20 different organic molecules that contain a carboxyl and an amino group and that combine to form proteins
peptide bond the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of 1 amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
polypeptide a long chain of several amino acids
enzyme a protein that speeds up metabolic reactions
substrate a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
active site the site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
lipid a type of biochemical that does not dissolve in water, including fats and steroids; lipids store energy and make up cell membranes
fatty acid organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils
triglyceride a lipid made of 3 fatty acid molecules and 1 glycerol molecule
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain
steroid a lipid that consists of 4 carbon rings to which various functional groups are attached and that usually has a physiological action
nucleic acid an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of 1 or 2 chains of nucleotides and carry genetic info
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains info that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs its cell activities
ribonucleic acid (RNA) stores and transfers info from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins
nucleotide in a nucleic acid chain, a subunit that consists that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogen base
Created by: ChambersA20