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Chapter 3


organic compound a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbs and oxides.
functional group the portion of a molecule that is active in a chemical reaction and that determines the properties of many organic compounds.
monomer a simple molecule that can combine with other like or unlike molecules to make a polymer.
polymer a large molecule that is formed by more than five monomers, or small units.
macromolecule a very large organic molecule, usually a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms.
condensation reaction a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule.
hydrolysis a chemical reaction between water and another substance to form two or more new substances; a reaction between water and a salt to create an acid or base.
adenosine triphosphate an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups.
carbohydrate organic compounds composed of carbon
monosaccharide a monomer of a carb
polysaccharide one of the carbs made up of long chains of simple sugars
protein an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells.
amino acid an organic molecule that contains a carboxyl and an amino group and that makes up proteins; a protein monomer.
peptide bond the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid.
polypeptide a long chain of several amino acids
enzyme a type of protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions in plant and animals without being permanently changed or destroyed.
substrate a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element.
active site the site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
lipid a large, nonpolar organic molecule, including fats and steroids.
fatty acid an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes.
wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain that is joined to a long alcohol chain.
steroid a type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings to which various functional groups are attached and that usually has a physiological action
nucleic acid an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information.
deoxyribonucleic acid the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
ribonucleic acid a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
nucleotide in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base.
Created by: FarlowA20



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