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Neurotransmitters

Neuro

TermDefinition
Synapse types Chemical (gap) - more common. Electrical (no gap) ions flow from the neuron directly into the target cell.
Synaptic cleft the gap between the terminal of an axon and target cell.
Synaptic vessicles contain neurotransmitter - only certain neurotransmitters can be received by certain neuroreceptors (key & lock)
Neurotransmitter molecules that communicate information between neurons, target cells, and chemical synapses. (Excitatory or inhibitory.)
Neurotransmitter categories (3) Amino acids, peptides (larger molecules), monoamines (biogenic amines), Acetylcholine.
Amino acids Glutamate (most common excitatory neurotransmitter). GABA (most common inhibitory neurotransmitter, in the brain). Glycine (most common inhibitory neurotransmitter, in the spinal cord).
Monoamines For attention, consciousness, cognition, emotion. e.g., Serotonin, Histamine, Catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine)
Peptides Opioids (for perception of pain). Endorphins
Acetylcholine In CNS, functions as a neuromodulator (alters the way other brain structures process information). In PNS, it's released by motor neurons that synapse on skeletal muscle. In ANS, it's a major internal transmitter.
Created by: ashea01