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Biology Test

TermDefinition
3 parts of the cell theory •All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. •The cell is the most basic unit of life. •All cells arise from pre-existing, living cells.
scientist and what they discovered about the cell Schleiden- plants are made out of cells, Schwann- all animals are made out of cells. Virchow- all cells came from pre-existing cells, Leeuwnhoek- , Hooke- discovered cell walls
difference between pro and eukaryote cells prokaryote cells don't have nucleus; bacteria. Eukaryote do have nucleus and membrane bound; plants and animals
two main parts of viruses protein coat and nucleic acid
Are all viruses the same in structure and size? yes
capsid protein shell of a virus
prokaryotic single celled organism without a membrane bound nucleus
eukaryotic cell with nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes
organelle subunit within a cell that has a specific unit
function of mitochondria "powerhouse of a cell", transfers stored energy in glucose to molecules of ATP
function of chloroplast converts energy from the sun into chemical energy contained in molecules of glucose; makes sugar
function of smooth ER and rough ER smooth-functions lipid metabolism, rough- has ribosomes
function of ribosomes protein builders or protein synthesizers of the cell
function of nucleus controls the cells activities and stores DNA
function of nucleolus assemble particles and play a role in the cells response to stress
function of lysosomes breaks down old organelles and foreign substances
function of cell wall extra support for plant cells; so they can store more water
function of plasma (cell) membrane protects the cell from the surroundings
function of chromatin package DNA into a smaller volume to fit into the cell. prevent DNA damage, control gene expression and DNA replication
function of Golgi body ships proteins off to their final destination, process and packages substances for export from the cell
what structures are only in plant cells? cell wall, vacuole, and chloroplast
what structures are only in animal cells? microtubules
what structures do both plant and animal cells have? nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes
how do proteins get out of a cell? the protein is folded and then packaged for transport to the Golgi apparatus
cells vs viruses viruses have to attach to a cell,
diffusion movement of molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentrations
osmosis diffusion of water molecules from high to low across a semipermeable membrane
facilitated diffusion diffusion of molecules across a membrane through transport proteins
passive transport movement of molecules across the cell membrane without energy input from the cell
active transport uses energy to transport particles through a membrane against the concentration gradient; energy is required
plasmolysis the shrinking of the cell due to water leaving the cell
cytolysis the bursting of a cell due to watering entering the cell
endocytosis the taking in of particles into a cell by engulfing them in a membrane
pinocytosis the taking in of liquid or dissolved materials
phagocytosis the taking in of large solid materials
exocytosis the removal of wastes out of a cell by the fusion of a vessel with the membrane
hypertonic water going in of the cell, the solute outside the cell is higher than the solute inside, more water inside the cell, the cell will shrink
hypotonic more water outside the cell than in, solute is higher insider the cell
Created by: 1794109014163948