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DE Bio - Ch. 3-4

Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life/Cells and Organelles

QuestionAnswer
A compound containing carbon organic molecule
Organic molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen Hydro-carbons
Large molecules Macromolecules
4 chemical groups most important to life 1). Phosphate 2). Amino acid 3). Sulfhydral 4). Carboxyl
2 ways chemical groups contribute to the function of a molecule 1). Shape 2). Chemical reactions
What is ATP made up of? 1). Adenine 2). Sugar 3). 3 phosphate groups
What is the function of ATP? Capture and transport energy
Small molecules that serve as building blocks Monomers
Longer molecules made of many similar building blocks Polymers
A chemical reaction that links monomers together by pulling out water is _______? Dehydration synthesis
A chemical reaction that breaks monomers apart by adding water is ______? Hydrolysis
Carbohydrates include both ______ and _______ sugars Simple and Complex
What type of carbons are carbohydrates? Saturated
General formula of carbohydrates C[H2O]
When two monomers are joined, a molecule of _____ is removed Water
One unit of sugar is called a ______ Monosaccharide
2 examples of monosaccharides are _______ and ________ Glucose and Fructose
Two units of sugar linked together are called a __________ Disaccharide
3 examples of disaccharides are ________, _________, and _______ Sucrose, lactose, and maltose
Many units of sugar linked together are called a ______ Trisaccharide
Definition of glycogen (also in a Trisacc.) Storage form of glucose in animals
Definition of starch (also in a Trisacc.) Storage form of glucose in plants
Definition of cellulose (also in a Trisacc.) Structural component of plant cell walls
Lipids are made from _______ and __________ Glycerol backbone and fatty acid chains
What is the main function of fats? Long-term energy storage
What type of fat is solid at room temperature and is found in animals? Saturated fat
What type of fat is liquid at room temperature and is found in plants? Unsaturated fat
Lipids that are a part of the cell membrane are called _______ Phospholipids
Lipids made of a carbon skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings are called ______ Steroids
A crucial steroid in animals is ______ Cholesterol
2 functions of cholesterol 1). Part of the cell membrane 2). Used to make steroid hormones (testosterone and estrogen)
There are ________ of proteins making up 50% of the dry mass of most cells Tens of thousands
What is the monomer of proteins? Amino acids
How are amino acids joined? Dehydration synthesis
What is the polymer of proteins? Polypeptide chain
What gives each protein its specific function? Physical and chemical properties of side chains
A change in shape leading to change in function Denature
What is the Central Dogma of Science? (formula) DNA -> RNA -> protein
What is the monomer of nucleic acids? Nucleotides
What are the three parts of a nucleotide? 1). Nitrogen base 2). 5 carbon sugar 3). 1 or more phosphate group
Nucleotides are linked together by _______ synthesis and broken by _________ Dehydration and hydrolosis
Pyramidine pairs with a _____ Purine
Guanine pairs with ________ Cytosine
Thymine pairs with _______ Uracil
All organisms are made of ________ Cells
Basic features of a cell Plasma membrane, cytosol, chromosomes, and ribsomes
A barrier in cells that allows oxygen, nutrients, and waste to pass through it Plasma membrane
What organelle contains DNA in a eukaryotic cell? Nucleus
What uses the information from DNA to make proteins? Ribsomes
The _______ envelope encloses the nucleus separating it from the cytoplasm Nuclear
The ________ _________ is a double membrane that each consists of a lipid bilayer Nuclear Membrane
DNA in the nucleus is organized into units called ________ Chromosomes
The nucleolus is responsible for what type of synthesis? Ribosomal RNA synthesis
Ribosomes carry out protein synthesis in what two places? 1). Cytosol 2). Rough ER
Lacks ribosomes Smooth ER
Surface is studded with ribosomes Rough ER
What are the functions of the smooth ER? 1). Synthesizes lipids 2). Metabolizes carbohydrates 3). Detoxifies 4). Stores calcium ions
What are the functions of the rough ER? 1). Has bound ribosomes that secrete glycoproteins 2). Distributes transport vesicles 3). Is a membrane factory for the cell
Functions of the golgi apparatus 1). Modifies products of the ER 2). Manufactures macromolecules 3). Sorts and packages
Lysosome is a ______ Sack of enzymes that can digest macromolescules
What can a lysosome fuze with to digest molecules? Food vacuole
What are vacuoles? Large vesicles from the ER?
Site of cellular respiration in a cell is ________ Mitochondria
What produces hydrogen peroxide and converts it to water? Hydrogen peroxide
In animal cells, microtubules grow out of a _________ Centrosome
Created by: savvysparks