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Genetics Exam 1

Ch 1, Ch 2, Ch 11, Ch 12, & Ch 13

Steps to Bacterial DNA replication (1-5) 1)proteins binding to dnaA boxes cause tension that opens up AT rich regions 2)Helicase unzips 3)Topoisomerase relieves supercoiling 4)Single stranded binding proteins keep strands seperated 5)primase creates primers
Steps to Bacterial DNA replication (6-9) 6)DNA pol III adds nucleotides to 3' end of primers 7)DNA pol I replaces RNA with DNA 8) Ligase covalently bonds fragments 9) Termination
Steps to Eukaryotic DNA replication 1)ORC binds to origin of replication 2)MCM helicase unzips DNA 3)DNA pol alpha creates primers 4)DNA pol delta elongates lagging strand 5)DNA pol epsilon elongates leading strand 6)flap endonuclease removes primers 7)ligase binds fragments
Eukaryotic chromosomes linear ~10,s to 100's mbp ~1000's genes per multipile origins of rep multiple kinds centromeres/telomeres
Ploidy # of kinds of chromosomes
Gamete Haploid sex cell
Variation Differences between individuals in a particular trait
Allele Version of a gene
Who discovered DNA Watson, Crick, and Franklin
Monomers of nucleic acid Nucleotides
Nucleoid Nucleus like region in prokaryotes
Bacterial Chromosomes Circular ~1 mbp ~1000 genes per one type one origin of rep supercoiling
Hershey & Chase DNA is a hereditary molecule E coli infected wth radioisotope
Gene sequence of nucleotides with information to create a functional product (RNA/polypeptide)
Meiosis sexual reproduction eukaryotes only 4 genetically different daughter cells
Purines Adenine and Guanine
Pyrimadines Thymine and Cytosine
Nucleoside vs nucleotide without phosphate: nucleoside
Mitosis Growth, tissue repair, asexual reproduction eukaryotes only 2 genetically identical daughter cells
Eukaryotes vs bacteria Membrane bounds organelles Chromosomes plasmids
Similarities in E and B membranes ribosomes cytosol/cytoplasm DNA
Chargaff's rule A with T and G with C
stages of meiosis prophase metaphase anaphase telophase cytokinesis
Griffith DNA can be transformed by other DNA Living and dead pathogenic/ non pathogenic bacteria
Avery, Mcleod, and McCarty DNA is a transforming molecule Only mixed with nucleic acids = pathogenic
Created by: diana.ocuilinn