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2.2-2.3 Terms

TermDefinition
energy the ability to do work
chemical reaction when one or more chemical substances change to produce one or more different substances
reactants a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction (shown on the left side of the equation)
products a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
metabolism all the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
activation energy the amount of energy needed to start the reaction
catalysts chemical substances that reduce the amount of activation energy that is needed for a reaction to take place
enzyme a protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions without being permanently changed or destroyed.
redox reaction reaction in which electrons are transferred between atoms
oxidation reaction when a reactant loses one or more electrons, thus becoming more positive in charge
reduction reaction when a reactant gains one or more electrons, thus becoming more negative in charge
polar describes a molecule with opposite charges on opposite ends
hydrogen bond the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge
cohesion an attraction that holds molecules of a single substance together
adhesion the attractive force between two particles of different substances ex: water molecules and glass molecules
capillarity the attraction between molecules that results in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid
solution a mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance
solute a substance dissolved in the solvent
solvent the substance in which the solute is dissolved
concentration the amount of solute dissolved in a fixed amount of the solution
saturated solution a solution in which no more solute can dissolve
aqueous solution solution in which water is the solvent
hydroxide ion the OH- ion
hydronium ion the H30+ ion
acid any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water; turns blue litmus paper red and react with bases and some metals to form salts
base solution that contains more hydroxide ions that hydronium ions
pH scale a scale for comparing the relative concentration of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution
Buffers chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base added to a solution
Created by: WalshC20