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Genetics Test 1

Genetics Test 1 ppt 1

4 sub-disciplines of modern genetics Transmission genetics, molecular genetics, population/evolutionary genetics, quantitative genetics
Transmission genetics Study of how traits are passed on from one generation to the next. Mendelian/classical
Molecular genetics Study of the chemical nature of genes and how they operate at a molecular level
Population/ evolutionary genetics Study of genetic variation within and among populations
Quantitative genetics Study of heredity of traits in groups of individuals where many genes determine traits simultaneously
Alleles Alternate forms of a gene at a locus
Principle of segregation Genes come in pairs (diploid) and when gametes are produced each gets one gene (haploid) at random from each gene pair, but not both
Chromosomal theory of inheritance Chromosomes carry genes
Thomas Hunt Morgan Fruit flies. Sex-linked inheritance. First evidence for chromosomal theory of inheritance. Genes arranged linearly on chromosomes.
Recombinant New combination of alleles not seen in parents
Barbara McClintock Detected recombination by studying maize under a microscope
Friedrich Miescher Discovered DNA. Collected white blood cells from pus, lysed them and isolated nuclei. Found nuclein, high in phosphorous.
Griffith S-strain virulent, R-strain nonvirulent. Bacteria and mice. Chemical substance from a cell genetically transformed other cells.
Oswald Avery Went further with Griffith's experiment; DNA is transforming principle, not RNA or protein
Beadle and Tatum Used mold to prove Garrod's idea of relationship between genes and enzymes. One gene-one enzyme
One gene- one polypeptide Each gene codes for only one polypeptide, but each polypeptide is coded for by more than one gene
Watson and Crick Stole Roseline Franklin's research to build a model of DNA (double helix)
Purines Adenine, guanine
Pyrimidines Cytosine, thymine
Three forms of DNA A, B, Z
Gene expression Process by which a gene produces its product and the product carries out its function
What does uracil replace? Thymine. Only in RNA
Transcription DNA splits, RNA polymerase makes mRNA copy
Translation mRNA carries instructions to ribosomes and a protein is assembled
Genetic code mRNA code, not a DNA code
Point mutation Change one base to another (sickle cell)
indel mutation Insertion and deletion of pieces of DNA
Frameshift mutation single insertion or deletion that alters the order the codons are interpreted in
Hardy-Weinburg Genetic equilibrium in a population
Recombination Crossing over of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
Khorana and Niremberg determined nature of genetic code (codons)
Created by: iragland