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Biology Exam 1


taxonomist one who studies the diversity of life, including the basic task of identification of species
E. O. Wilson a Harvard biologist (now retired but very active) he works as an entomologist but is also a consummate scientist in that he has helped to establish new disciplines within biology (e.g. sociobiology)
biophilia the connections that human beings subconsciously seek with the rest of life
Zeitgeist spirit of the age; the thought or feeling of a period of time
Reductionism to reduce the whole to its parts, or to reduce complex phenomena to their working components.
Emergent properties with each level of organization, properties emerge that cannot be predicted based on knowledge of the parts alone
Living Organisms... 1. Reproduce 2. are Composed of Chemicals 3. Acquire Materials and Energy 4. Sense & Respond to Environmental Stimuli 5. Have the Capacity to Mutate 6. Life exhibits organization at many levels how to define life
mitosis (cell division) the means of asexual reproduction--one cell divides into two and each goes its separate way becoming a new individual, no, or little, cell differentiation is required
meiosis required to reduce the chromosome number from the diploid to the haploid state
organic chemicals carbon based chemicals
metabolism chemical reactions within an organism that transfers energy
Element a substance that can't be broken down to substances with different properties
Atom smallest unit of an element & is an element; usually consisting of negatively charged electrons orbiting a nucleus of positively charged protons and neutral neutrons
atomic number represents the number of protons, unique for each element
# electrons usually is same as # protons, number can vary
# neutrons may vary between atoms of the same element
isotope An atoms of an element w/a specified number of neutrons
ions charged atoms
molecule atoms bonded together
ionic bond a relatively weak bond formed by the electrostatic or electromagnetic attraction between (+) & (-) ions [opposite charges attract]
covalent bond a bond created by the sharing of electrons between atoms
hydrogen bond weak bond between slightly positive H atom that is polar covalently bonded elsewhere and a slightly negative atom that is polar covalently bonded to another molecule or to a different part of the same molecule to which the H atom belongs
polar covalent bonds when electrons shared unequally between atoms w/in a molecule
cohesive water clings to itself
adhesive water clings to hydrophilic substances and surfaces
hydrophilic "water loving" substances and surfaces; such substances will bear charges and often exhibit polarity, i.e. exhibits both negative and positive charges at opposite ends
Polar substances dissolve readily in water (ex. sugar)
Inorganic moleculeS contain no carbon chains or rings
Simple Sugars (made by plants) C,H,& O, the simplest ingredients.
Fatty Acids C,H, & O but many O’s removed forming long chains of hydrocarbons (carbon and hydrogen only); made from sugars.
Amino Acids C, H, O, N, & S – we acquire most from the food we eat; ultimately plants are the original manufacturers.
Nucleotides C, H, O, N, P – we acquire from food and the restructuring of the other organic molecules
Carbohydrates All are sugar-based molecules.
Monosaccharides simple sugars, ex. The 6-carbon sugar glucose
Disaccharides two simple sugars bound together, ex. Maltose
Polysaccharides many simple sugars bound together
cellulose plant cells walls
chitin insect exoskeletons & fungi cell walls
Lipids fatty acids, waxes, and steroids (all hydrophobic)
Fats and Oils often have fatty acids occurring 3 per molecule = Triglyceride
unsaturated fats oils [fatty acids have some double bonds between carbons, hence some carbon are bond to only one H]
saturated fats fats(solid)[no double bonds between carbons]
Energy storage 1 gram of fat has twice the energy as 1 gram of carbohydrate. Animals store fat under the skin; plants store fats and oils in seeds as long term storage for embryonic plant (in nuts, i.e. large seeds, particularly).
Protection & insulation cushions vital organs (kidney); blubber in whales & seals
Waxes Ear wax; bees wax; plant cuticle (waxy covering of plants that protects against water loss, i.e. desiccation)
Steroids Cholesterol (in cell membranes & used to make the sex hormones); testosterone & estrogen
Phospholipids major component of cell membranes
proteins made of Amino Acids held together by peptide bonds
peptide bonds covalent bonds that join amino acids
polypeptide a protein
20 how many different amino acids are there?
Globular proteins have crevices that interact with other molecules (hemoglobin has a crevice to hold O2; enzymes have crevices to facilitate and speed up or catalyze chemical reactions
Fibrous proteins provide for structural strength as keratin (fibers in hair), collagen (fibers in muscle and bone); actin and myosine are fibrous proteins that contract for muscle movement
antibodies protein molecules produced by the immune system that combat foreign invaders (bacteria and viruses)
nucleotides consists of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
DNA, RNA, and ATP 3 important nucleic acids
Anton van Leeuwenhoek a Dutch shopkeeper, discovered microscopic life.
Robert Hooke an English scientist who coined term “cell” for empty compartments in cork.
Spontaneous generation now an outdated theory that a vital force would cause microbes (cells) to arise from nonliving matter, was a widely accepted explanation for the occurrence of certain forms of life (especially microbes)
All life is composed of cells The smallest living unit is the cell Cells arise from preexisting cells the cell theory
Schleiden (botanist) and Schwann (zoologist) and Virchow three German scientists that came up with the cell theory
Mechanism and reductionism two characteristics of science
lignin material that makes the wall hard as in wood from a tree
Adhesion proteins found on the membranes of cells forming intact tissues
Fluid Mosaic Model. Know that the name given to this knowledge or understanding of membrane structure is the __________
Transport proteins (passive transporters & active transporters) transport some molecules and ions in/out of cell
Enzymes Membranes are sites of many chemical reactions and embedded enzymes (proteins) are chemical catalysts (speed up chemical reactions) that occur on the surface of membranes
Recognition proteins
Receptor proteins Membranes, or more specifically the proteins protruding from the membranes, receive chemical messages
Prokaryotic cells are all bacterial cells. Only bacteria are prokaryotic in cell type, they are the only prokaryotes
E. coli the colon bacillus
Eukaryotic cells are more complex internally than prokaryotic cells
Cytoplasm a chemical solution with floating “chemical factories”
Cytoskeleton internal system of microfilaments in cytoplasm: These move objects through cytoplasm [ex. chromosomes during cell division; packages of chemicals (vesicles) are moved about within the cell with help from the ______________]
organelles “chemical factories”
Membranous Organelles specialized compartments
Vesicles packages of molecules transported w/in cell or secreted outside cell, ex. hormones, components of mucus
Lysosomes vesicles w/digestive enzymes, digest foreign invaders, recycle cell parts, & digest carbohydrates, proteins, and other types of molecules
Golgi apparatus (also called Gogi bodies or Golgi complex) a packing center, consists of folded membranes (like stacks of pita bread), creates vesicles
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) SYNTHESIS CENTER, consists of folded membranes that create pockets isolated from rest of cytoplasm.
Rough ER w/ribosomes, for protein synthesis
Smooth ER w/out ribosomes, for lipid synthesis
Mitochondria “power houses,” produce ATP through cellular respiration (in all live eukaryotic cells)
Chloroplasts in plants and some algae; photosynthesis
endosymbiosis one cell lives inside another in a mutually beneficial relationship
Nucleus holds genetic information, sends instructions to cytoplasm
Central vacuole large water-filled vacuole in plant cells
Cell walls bacteria, plants, fungi, algae (NOT FOUND IN ANIMAL CELLS) rigid or flexible, for support
Flagella (sing. flagellum) whip-like, hair-like projections, occur singly or few: ex. sperm
Cilia short, numerous, ex. protozoa, fallopian tubes, wind pipe. For movement of fluid.
Plasma membrane and other membranes consist of a phospholipid bilayer with a mosaic of embedded proteins; help regulate movement of chemicals across their boundary.
adenosine triphosphate ATP
Diffusion a common way many substances move into and out of cells; may be defined as the passive movement of molecules from an area where they are more highly concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
Osmosis Diffusion of water into or out of the cell
Endocytosis & Exocytosis vesicles forming at the plasma membrane bring material in; vesicles fusing with plasma membrane dump material out
Passive transport diffusion through transport proteins for which the phospholipid bilayer is a barrier, ex. glucose
Active Transport transport proteins expend energy (ATP) to move molecules from low concentration to high concentration, ex. calcium
Energy the capacity to do work; bring about change
PHOTOSYNTHESIS Light energy is converted to chemical bond energy by means of
HEAT random motion, which can be seen as disorder or energy that can't be used
entropy is a measure of a system's disorder
Enzymes control each reaction in a metabolic pathway; globular proteins w/ specific shape
“Substrates” are the reactants in an enzyme facilitated reaction
“Active site” is the "crevice" part of an enzyme whose shape fits that of the substrates
ATP the energy currency of the cell; is needed for many enzyme catalyzed reactions
oxidation-reduction The transfer of electrons between chemicals
Photosynthesis is an energy conversion converting light energy to chemical bond energy
van Helmont a Belgian physician, devised simple experiment in which he grew a willow tree seedling for five years in a bucket containing a known quantity of soil. The tree gained roughly 195 pounds while the soil lost less than one pound
Joseph Priestly (England) put things under bell jars. Mouse kept alive in bell jar with plant.
photosystems Upon the inner chloroplast membranes photosynthetic pigments are arranged into these discrete patches
chlorophyll pigment molecules that absorb light energy
photolysis process of splitting water molecules
Carbon fixation the conversion of inorganic CO2 into carbohydrates
Fossil fuels plants from 350 MYA (Carboniferous Period) died, were covered with sediments, and became coal
chemoautotrophs bacteria which use chemical bond energy of iron and sulfur compounds to fix carbon dioxide
Autotrophs organisms that create their own food by fixing CO2 into an organic form: requires outside energy source
photoautotrophs organism that requires sun for an energy source
Heterotrophs organisms that feed on food already formed by autotrophs
Created by: pace_sauce



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