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Biology Chapter 2.1

Biology Chapter 2

Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space.
Mass A measure of the amount of matter in an object; a fundamental property of an object that is not affected by the forces that act on the object, such as the gravitational force.
Element A substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means; all atoms of an element have the same atomic number.
Atom The smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical properties of that element.
Nucleus In physical science, an atoms central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons.
Proton A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom; the number of protons of the nucleus is the atomic number, which determines the identity of an element.
Neutron A subatomic particle that contains a lobed nucleus and many cytoplasmic granules.
Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; the atomic number is the same for all atoms of an element.
Mass Number The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Electron A subatomic particle that has a negative charge.
Orbital A region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons.
Isotope An atom that has the same number of protons (or the same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons (and thus a different atomic mass).
Compound A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds.
Chemical Bond The attractive force that holds atoms or ions together.
Covalent Bond A bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
Molecule A group of atoms that are held together by chemical forces; a molecule is the smallest unit of matter that can exist by itself and retain all of a substances chemical properties.
Ion An atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge.
Ionic Bond The attractive force between opposite charged ions, which form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
Created by: DragonT20