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Ecology

Science 2,22,24

TermDefinition
Ecology study of the interactions of organisms with their envrionment
Biosphere composed of living commumites and nonliving physical and chemical factors / global ecosystem/ supports life
Autotrophs plants on land that use photosynthesis and can also be called producers ( also bacteria)
Photoautotrophs capture energy from the sun to make organic compounds through photosynthesis
Chemoautotrophs capture energy from chemicals to make organic compounds through chemosynthesis
Heterotrophs primary consumers, eat autotrophs, cannot make their own food
Detritivores and Decomposers recieve energy from dead matter and wastes
Cellular repiration auto. and hetero. carry out chemical reactions that release chemical energy in organic compounds
Food chain describe eating realationships or transfer of energy in one direction between organisms in an ecosystem
Food webs a network of interconnecting food chains
Habitat where particular organisms live
10% rule each trophic level reaches ammmount 10% of the energy from the level below it
trophic structure autotrophs, heterotrophs, hervivores, omnivores, carnivores
Biomass the total quantity or mass of organisms in an are or volume
predation a +/- interaction between two species in which one species eats the other
niche a particular combination of resourses that species is adopted to exploit
symbiosis living together in a long-term relationship with significant physical or chemical interactions
Mutualism both species benefit +/+
Parasitism one organism benefits at the others expense +/-
Commensalism one organism benefits and the other is unaffected +/o
Competiiton larger or stornger organism excludes a smaller or weaker one form living space or deprives it from food
Behavior an organisms conducts or the way it acts. affects the availablity of an individual organism to survive and reproduce
Inate behaviors anything influnced by genes, not based on expeierence
Response an organisms reaction to stimilus
Stimiulus anything that trigers behaivors
Learned beheivors develops as a result of experience
Conditioning one stimulus is associated with another unrelated stimulus
Animal Societies complex social group organized by genetically determined behavior patterns
population density the number of individuals per unit of land or area or water volume
productivity how fast more biomass is added to an ecosystem
limiting factors it determines how quickly biomass is added to an ecosystem and can be biotic or abiotic
Expontential growth growth by multiplying cells and quickly rising and then falling
Carrying Capacity largest popualtion of a species the environment can support and is always in logistic growth
Logistic Growth when the population keeps growing and eventually becomes stable
Ecosystem all the organisms in a community as well as the abiotic environment
Succession one type of communty repalces another
Climax Community complex relationships now exist in the community and it has reached a stable balance
Primary Succession begins on bare rock glacial deposits lake beds
Secondary Succession occurs in a disturbed site where soil is already present lake and abandoned field, forest fire, etc
common pool resources goods and services provided by ecosystems that can be used by everyone
Sustainable means we can continue to use ecosystem goods and services without ruining them for future generations
pollution harming human and animal health, creates acid rain which prevents forest from growing and affects aquatic life
biodiversity the variety of life in a world or particular habitat or ecosystem
greenhouse gasses pros they trap heat in the atmosphere. w/o them the earth would be too cool to sustain life
greenhouse gasses cons there is too much heat increasein our global climate = global warming
what are the levels of organization an ecologist can study in order organism, population, community, ecosystem
what makes up a population all the same organism in a species
what makes up a community different organisms of different species in an ecosystem
what makes up an ecosystem biotic and abiotic factors
ways organisms use energy to car out chemical reactions, move, and transport nutrients to build complex molecules for cells
chemical energy vs free energy free is available for work while chemical energy is formed and stored in organic molecules
autotrophs get their energy by photosynthesis and chemosynthesis
how do heterotrophs obtain their energy from other organisms, heterotrophs are carnivores, herbivores or omnivores.
what is a tropic level organism that share the same function in the food chain and same nutritional relationship to the primary sources of energy
trophic levels in order from bottom to top producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, Tertiary consumers, Quaternary consumers
which tropic level contains the most biomass produces because they obtain the most energy
competitive exclusion principle states that two spices cannot occupy the same niche in the same ecosystem for a long period of time
benefits to an animal society defense form predators, reproduction, group care of young, diffusion of labor, sharing of useful information
dominance hierarchy where animals in a group have certain individual dominance over others like gorillas or wolves
caste system leadership is determined by body type and genetics like bees and termites
biochemical cycle it cycles the chemicals between organisms and the earth
3 processes that release co2 into the atmosphere cellular respiration, decomposition, combustion
role of photosynthesis in carbon cycle allows plants to give off o2 which primary consumers use and take co2 out of the atmosphere
consequences of climate change rise in sea levels, damage to coastal cities, agricultural impacts, human health inputs due to air quality
renewable vs nonrenewable can be replenished(solar energy, air) verses things with a limited supply(coal, oil)
difference between primary and secondary succession primary takes longer and primary starts with less resources
what happens to nitrogen before animal and plant use it is fixed through nitrogen fixation caried out usually by bacteria and cyonobacteria
water cycle processes by which water circulates between earth's oceans, land, and atmosphere
condensation the conversion of gas to water
plant transpiration water movement through plant and evaporation from leaves stems and flowers
infiltration water on ground enters the surface soil
solar radiation radiant energy emitted b the sun in electromagnetic energy
evaporation type of vaporization from liquid into gas
Created by: emassmann