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Biology 151 ch.1

Life: chemical,cellular, evolutionary foundations

Biology The science of how life works
Biologists Scientists who study life (me)
Observation The act of viewing the world around us
Experimentation A disciplined and controlled way of asking and answering questions about the world in an unbiased manner
Hypotheses A testable prediction often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject, or refuse theory
Predictions Specific statements that can be directly and unequivocally tested
Scientific Method A deliberate and careful way of asking questions about the unknown. We make observations, collect field or laboratory samples, and design and carry out experiments to make sense of things we initially do not understand
Theory A hypotheses that has been tested with a significant amount of data
First Law of Thermodynamics States that energy cannot be created nor destroyed. It can only be transformed from one to another.
Cell The simplest entity of life that can exist as a independent unit of life
DNA A double stranded helix made up of nucleotides that is capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins
Proteins Chains of amino acid
Transcription The organic process by with the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
Translation The process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA (mRNA) directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology DNA -> RNA -> Protein
Gene A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA in some viruses)with hereditary information
Mutations A change in the nucleotide sequence leading to genetic diversity
Plasma Membrane
Nucleus Controls the center of the cell containing protons and neutrons
Cytoplasm An inner layer of the prokaryotic cells that is rich is protein with gel-like consistency;
Prokaryotes Cells that do not enclose DNA in nuclei
Eukaryotes Cells that contain nuclei
Evolution A change in species overtime
Natural Selection A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits
Environmental variation The observable physical or biochemical characteristics of organisms that exist because those individuals developed in different environments.
Genetic Variation
Tree of Life A diagram depicting the genealogical relationships of all living organisms on Earth, with a single ancestral species at the base.
Ecology the study of how organisms interact with one another and with their physical environment in nature
Created by: vivian.coronado



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