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Energy and respirati

TermDefinition
ATP Adenosine triphosphate
Autotrophs An organism that can trap an inorganic carbon source such as carbon dioxide, using energy from light or from chemicals.
Heterotrophs An organism that needs a supply of organic molecules as it's carbon source.
Glycolysis The splitting (lysis) of glucose.
Link reaction Decarboxylation and dehydrogenation of pyruvate, resulting in the formation of acetyl coenzyme A, linking glycolysis with the Krebs cycle.
Krebs cycle A cycle of reactions in aerobic respiration in the matrix of a mitochondrion in which hydrogens pass to hydrogen carriers for subsequent ATP synthesis and some ATP is synthesised directly.
ATP synthase Enzyme catalysing the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP.
Chemiosmosis Synthesis of ATP using energy stored as a difference in hydrogen ion concentration across a membrane in a chloroplast or mitochondrion.
Phosphorylation Transfer of a phosphate group to an organic compound.
Respiration Enzymatic release of energy from organic compounds in living cells.
Respiratoryquotient-RQ The ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide given out in respiration to that of oxygen used .
Oxidative phosphorylation Synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi using energy from oxidation reactions in aerobic respiration.
Electron transport chain Chain of adjacently arranged carrier molecules in the inner mitochondrial membrane, along which electrons pass by redo reactions.
FAD Flavin adenine dinucleotide.
NAD Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.
Cristae Folds in the inner membrane of the mitochondrial envelope on which are found stalked particles of ATP synthase and electron transport chains associated with aerobic respiration.
Alcoholic fermentation Anaerobic respiration in which glucose is converted to ethanol.
Lactate Lactic acid. The end product of lactic fermentation, often produced by muscles during exercise.
Lactic fermentation Respiration in which, in the absence of oxygen,glucose is converted to lactic acid (lactate).
Oxygen debt Volume of oxygen that is required at the end of exercise to metabolise the lactate that accumulates as a result of anaerobic respiration in muscles.
Calorimeter Apparatus in which the energy value of a compound can be measured by burning it in oxygen.
Aerenchyma Plant tissue containing air spaces.
Parenchyma Basic plant tissue typically used as packing tissue between more specialised structures; it is metabolically active and may have a variety of functions such as food storage, support and transport via symplast and apoplast pathways.
Created by: tbaduge
 

 



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