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Chapter 2 & 3 Vocab

Matter anything that occupies space and has mass.
Mass the quantity of matter an object has.
Elements substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter.
Atom The simplest particle of an element that retains all of the properties of that element
Nucleus the central region that makes up the bulk of the mass of the mass of the atom and consists of two kinds of subatomic particles, a proton and a neutron.
A Proton Positively charged subatomic particle.
Atomic number the number of protons in an atom
Mass number equal to the total number of protons and neutrons of the atom
Electrons Small, negatively charged particles that balance the protons
Orbital A three-dimensional region around a nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
Isotopes Atoms that are of the same element that have a different number of neutrons
Compounds Something made up of atoms of two of more elements in fixed proportions
Chemical bonds the attractive forces that hold atoms together.
Covalent bond forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
Molecule the simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of that substance and can exist in a free state.
Ion An atom or molecule with an electric charge
Ionic bond The attraction between positive and negative electrical charges
Energy The ability to do work
Chemical Reaction One or more substances change to produce one or more different substances.
Reactants Shown on the left side of a chemical equation
Products Shown on the right side of a chemical equation
Metabolism The term used to describe all of the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
Activation Energy the amount of energy needed to start the reaction
Catalysts Chemical substances that reduce the amount of activation energy that is needed for a reaction to take place.
Enzyme A protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions without being permanently changed or destroyed
Redox Reaction Reaction in which electrons are transferred between atoms (oxidation-reduction reaction)
Oxidation Reaction Reaction in which a reactant loses one or more electrons, thus becoming positive in charge
Reduction Reaction Reaction in which a reactant gains one or more electrons, thus becoming negative in charge.
Polar When there is an uneven distribution of charge
Hydrogen Bond the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge.
Cohesion An attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together
Adhesion the attractive force between two particles of different substances, such as water molecules and glass molecules.
Capillarity the attraction between molecules that result in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid
Solution a mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance.
Solute is a substance dissolved in the solvent
Solvent the substance in which the solute is dissolved
Concentration the amount of solute dissolved in a fixed amount of the solution
Saturated Solution a solution in which no more solute can dissolve
Aqueous solution solution in which water is the solvent- are universally important to living things
Hydroxide Ion OH- ion
Hydronium Ion H30+ ion
Acid any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water; acid turns blue litmus paper red and reacts with bases and some metals to form salts
Base any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water; bases turn red litmus paper blue and react with acids to form salts
pH scale a range of values that are used to express the acidity or alkalinity(basicity) of a system; each whole number on the scale indicates a tenfold change in acidity; a pH of 7 is neutral, a pH of less than 7 is acidic, and a pH of greater than 7 is basic
Buffer A solution made from a weak acid and its conjugate base that neutralizes small amounts of acids or bases added to it
Organic compound a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides
Functional groups the portion of a molecule that is active in a chemical reaction and that determines the properties of many organic compounds
Monomer a simple molecule that can combine with like or unlike molecules to make a Polymer
Polymer a large molecule that is formed by more than 5 monomers, or small units
Macromolecules a very large organic molecule, usually a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms
Condensation reaction a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water and another simple molecule
Hydrolysis a chemical reaction between water and another substance to form two or more new substances; a reaction between water and a salt to create an acid or a base
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups
Carbohydrates any organic compound that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and that provides nutrients to the cells of living things
Monosaccharide a simple sugar that is the basic subunit, or monomer, of a carbohydrate
Disaccharide a sugar formed from two monosaccharides
Polysaccharide one of the carbohydrates made up of long chains of simple sugars; polysaccharides include starch, cellulose, and glycogen
Proteins an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
Amino acid an organic molecule that contains a carboxyl and an amino group and that makes up proteins; a protein monomer
Peptide Bond the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group another amino acid
Polypeptide a long chain of several amino acids
Substrate a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
Active site the site of an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
Lipids a large, non polar organic molecule including fats and steroids; lipids store energy and make up cell membranes
Triglyceride a lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule
Fatty acid an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils
Phospholipids a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
Wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain that is joined to a long alcohol chain
Steroid a type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings to which various functional groups are attached and that usually has a physiological action
Nucleic acid an organic compound , either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one of two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
Nucleotide in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogen base
Created by: sarahisaheaton



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