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Biochem Chapter 2-3

Acid any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water; acids turn blue litmus paper red and react with bases and some metals to form salts
activation energy the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
adhesion the attractive force between two bodies of different substances that are in contact with each other
aqueous solution a solution in which water is the solvent
atom the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical properties of that element
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; the atomic number is the same for all atoms of an element
base any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water; bases turn red litmus paper blue and react with acids to form salts
buffer a solution made from a weak acid and its conjugate base that neutralizes small amounts of acids or bases added to it
capillarity the attraction between molecules that results in the rise of a liquid in small tubes
catalysis the acceleration of a chemical reaction by a catalyst
chemical bond the attractive force that holds atoms or ions together
chemical reaction the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
cohesion the force that holds molecules of a single material together
compound a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
concentration the amount of a particular substance in a given quantity of a mixture, solution, or ore
covalent bond a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
electron a subatomic particle that has a negative charge
element a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means; all atoms of an element have the same atomic number
energy the capacity to do work
enzyme a molecule, either protein or RNA, that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions
hydrogen bond the intermolecular force occurring when a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom of one molecule is attracted to two unshared electrons of another molecule
hydronium ion an ion consisting of a proton combined with a molecule of water; H3O+
hydroxide ion the OH- ion
ion an atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge
ionic bond the attractive force between oppositely charged ions, which form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another
isotope an atom that has the same number of protons (or the same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons (and thus a different atomic mass)
mass a measure of the amount of matter in an object; a fundamental property of an object that is not affected by the forces that act on the object, such as the gravitational force
mass number the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
matter anything that has mass and takes up space
metabolism the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism
molecule a group of atoms that are held together by chemical forces; a molecule is the smallest unit of matter that can exist by itself and retain all of a substance's chemical properties
neutron a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom
nucleus in physical science, an atom's central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons
orbital a region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons
oxidation reaction a chemical reaction in which a reactant loses one or more electrons such that the reactant becomes more positive in charge
pH scale a range of values that are used to express the acidity or alkalinity (basicity) of a system; each whole number on the scale indicates a tenfold change in acidity; a pH of 7 is neutral, a pH of less than 7 is acidic, and a pH of greater than 7 is basic
polar describes a molecule in which the positive and negative charges are separated
product a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
proton a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom; the number of protons in the nucleus is the atomic number, which determines the identity of an element
reactant a substance that participates in a chemical reaction
redox reaction a reaction in which electrons are transferred between atoms; also known as an oxidation-reduction reaction
reduction reaction a chemical change in which electrons are gained, either by the removal of oxygen, the addition of hydrogen, or the addition of electrons
saturated solution a solution that cannot dissolve any more solute under the given conditions
solute in a solution, the substance that dissolves in the solvent
solution a homogeneous mixture throughout which two or more substances are uniformly dispersed
solvent in a solution, the substance in which the solute dissolves
active site on an enzyme, the site that attaches to a substrate
adenosine triphosphate adenosine triphosphate, an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups
amino acid a compound of a class of simple organic compounds that contain a carboxyl group and an amino group and that combine to form proteins
carbonhydrate a class of molecules that includes sugars, starches, and fiber; contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
condensation reaction a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule
deoxyribonucleic reaction deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
disaccharide a sugar formed from two monosaccharides
enzyme a molecule, either protein or RNA, that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions
fatty acid an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils
functional group the portion of a molecule that is active in a chemical reaction and that determines the properties of many organic compounds
hydrolysis a chemical reaction between water and another substance to form two or more new substances; a reaction between water and a salt to create an acid or a base
lipid a fat molecule or a molecule that has similar properties; examples include oils, waxes, and steroids
macromolecule a very large organic molecule, usually a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms
monomer a simple molecule that can combine with other like or unlike molecules to make a polymer
monosacharude a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate
nucleic acid an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
nucleotide in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
organic compound a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides
peptide bond the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
protein an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
ribonucleic acid (ENA) ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
steriod a type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings to which various functional groups are attached and that usually has a physiological action
substrate a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
triglyceride a lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule
wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain that is joined to a long alcohol chain
Created by: Therealmw__



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