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Chapter 2 & 3

matter anything that occupies space and has mass
mass a measure of the amount of matter in an object; a fundamental property of an object that is not affected by the forces that oct on the object, such as the gravitational force
element a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means; all atoms of an element have the same atomic number
atom the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical properties of that element
nucleus an atom's central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons
atomic number number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; the atomic number is the same for all atoms of an element
mass number sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
electron a subatomic particle that has a negative charge
orbital a region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons
isotope an atom that has the same number of protons (or the same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons (and thus a different atomic mass)
compound a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
chemical bond the attractive force that holds atoms or ions together
covalent bond a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
molecule a group of atoms that are held together by chemical forces; a molecule is the smallest unit of matter that can exist by itself and retain all of a substance's chemical properties
ion an atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge
ionic bond the attractive force between oppositely charged ions, which form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another
energy capacity to do work
chemical reaction the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
reactant a substance that participates in a chemical reaction
product a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
metabolism the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism
activation energy the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
catalysis the acceleration of a chemical reaction by a catalyst
enzyme a molecule, either protein or RNA, that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions
redox reaction a reaction in which electrons are transferred between atoms; also known as an oxidation-reduction reaction
oxidation reaction a chemical reaction in which a reactant loses one or more electrons such that the reactant becomes more positive in charge
reduction reaction a chemical change in which electrons are gained, either by the removal of oxygen, the addition of hydrogen, or the addition of electrons
polar describes a molecule in which the positive and negative charges are separated
hydrogen bond the intermolecular force occurring when a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom of one molecule is attracted to two unshared electrons of another molecule
coheshion the force that holds molecules of a single material together
adhesion the attractive force between two bodies of different substances that are in contact with each other
capillarity the attraction between molecules that results in the rise of a liquid in small tubes
solution a homogeneous mixture throughout which two or more substances are uniformly dispersed
solute in a solution, the substance that dissolves in the solvent
solvent in a solution, the substance in which the solute dissolves
concentration the amount of a particular substance in a given quantity of a mixture, solution, or ore
saturated solution a solution that cannot dissolve any more solute under the given conditions
aqueous solution a solution in which water is the solvent
hydroxide ion the the OH- ion
hydronium ion an ion consisting of a proton combined with a molecule of water; H3O+
acid any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water; acids turn blue litmus paper red and react with bases and some metals to form salts
base any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water; bases turn red litmus paper blue and react with acids to form salts
ph scale a range of values that are used to express the acidity or alkalinity (basicity) of a system; each whole number on the scale indicates a tenfold change in acidity; a pH of 7 is neutral, a pH of less than 7 is acidic, and a pH of greater than 7 is basic
buffer a solution made from a weak acid and its conjugate base that neutralizes small amounts of acids or bases added to it
organic compound a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides
functional group the portion of a molecule that is active in a chemical reaction and that determines the properties of many organic compounds
monomer a simple molecule that can combine with other like or unlike molecules to make a polymer
polymer a large molecule that is formed by more than five monomers, or small units
macromolecule a very large organic molecule, usually a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms
condensation reaction a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule
hydrolysis a chemical reaction between water and another substance to form two or more new substances; a reaction between water and a salt to create an acid or a base
ATP adenosine triphosphate, an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups
carbohydrate a class of molecules that includes sugars, starches, and fiber; contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
monosaccharide a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate
disaccharide a sugar formed from two monosaccharides
polysaccharide one of the carbohydrates made up of long chains of simple sugars; polysaccharides include starch, cellulose, and glycogen
protein an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
amino acid a compound of a class of simple organic compounds that contain a carboxyl group and an amino group and that combine to form proteins
peptide bond the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
polypeptide a long chain of several amino acids
enzyme a molecule, either protein or RNA, that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions
substrate a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
active site on an enzyme, the site that attaches to a substrate
lipid a fat molecule or a molecule that has similar properties; examples include oils, waxes, and steroids
fatty acid an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils
triglyceride a lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain that is joined to a long alcohol chain
steroid a type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings to which various functional groups are attached and that usually has a physiological action
nucleic acid an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
RNA ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
nucleotide in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
Created by: gabriellacs



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