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Summer School Vocab

Organ Systems/DNA

Integumentary System organ system that forms a protective covering on the outside of the body
Muscular System organ system whose primary function is movement and flexibility
Skeletal System organ system whose primary function is to support and protect the body and to allow the body to move
Cardiovascular System organs that transport blood throughout the body
Respiratory System collection of organs whose primary function is to take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide
Urinary System removes waste from the blood and regulates your body’s fluids
Reproductive System produces and delivers sperm or produces eggs and nourishes and protects the fetus
Nervous System receives and sends electrical messages throughout your body
Digestive System breaks down the food you eat into nutrients that your body can absorb
Lymphatic System returns leaked fluids to blood vessels and helps get rid of bacteria and viruses
Endocrine System produces hormones, which are needed for proper body function and growth
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid, it contains the code for life
Chromosomes Small thread like structures found in the nucleus that contains that DNA
Double Helix The shape of a DNA strand, looks like a spiral latter
Adenine One of the 4 bases of DNA, its symbol is A
Thymine One of the 4 bases of DNA, its symbol is T
Guanine One of the 4 bases of DNA, its symbol is G
Cytosine One of the 4 bases of DNA, its symbol is C
Daughter Cells After DNA is copies, these are the names of the new cells created
Traits A characteristic about a person, these are determined by your DNA
Plant Cell Cells that make up plants
Animal Cell Cells that make up animals
Cell Wall Protects and Supports the cell membrane
Nucleus Responsible for storing genetic information and aids in in creating ribosomes
Vacuole Responsible for storage and breakdown of waste
Lysosome Responsible for digesting substances with enzymes
Cell Membrane Responsible for surrounding cell and controlling movement
Vesicle Responsible for carrying proteins and lipids from Golgi Apparatus to outside and other organelles
Chloroplast Responsible for using suns energy, water, and carbon dioxide to create sugar and oxygen in plant cells
Cytoskeleton Responsible for move structures within a cell
Mitochondria Responsible for creating energy for the cell
Free Ribosomes Responsible for creating proteins
Golgi Apparatus Responsible for modifying and sorting proteins and lipids
Endoplasmic Reticulum Responsible for creating lipids and proteins
Organelles Very small organs or structures that make up cells
Cells The smallest unit to make up life
Spinals In charge of dividing DNA during Mitosis and Meiosis by using fibers to separate chromosomes
Mitosis The process in which a cell is copied and split into 2 Daughter Cells that are exactly the same
Meiosis The process in which a cell is split into 4 daughter cells that have different DNA
Allele one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that are found at the same place on a chromosome. (example: Brown vs Blue Eyes)
Genotype the genetic make-up of an organism
Phenotype the physical make-up of an organism
Dominant allele allele that will be expressed as a trait if it is present
Recessive allele allele which is masked/hidden/covered up by the dominant allele
punnett square A diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment
Created by: Tmohondro