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chpt 4

ID and Classification of microorganisms

The three common ways to identify and classify microorganisms 1. By shape 2. By color change 3. By need for oxygen
Are bacteria classified by shape, color, or need for oxygen? shape
Round shaped, can be in pairs, clusters or chains Cocci
Rod shaped; may be large and brick-shaped or small and stick-like. Bacillus
Spiral shaped; can be comma shaped or many twists Spirillum
First word in a microorganism's name (always capitalized) Genus
Second word in a microorganism's name. Species
Microorganisms capable of forming a thick wall around themselves enabling them to survive in adverse conditions; a resistant form of bacterium. Spore
A molecule in plants that absorbs sunlight, and converts it to energy in process called photosynthesis. Chlorophyll
Why are bacteria stained with color? They cannot be seen under a microscope thus cannot be catergorized by shape if not seen.
Two stains that help identify bacteria Gram and Ziehl-Neilson
Two important acid-fast bacteria that most commonly cause disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculosis) and Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy)
Microbe that retains the red stain. Acid Fast stain
Bacteria which require air with oxygen . Aerobic Bacteria
Bacteria which obtain their oxygen from another source, and their enzymes are inactivated by free oxygen. Anaerobic Bacteria
T or F: Suitable environments for specific bacteria may be as different as the bacteria themselves. True
These bacteria grow best at 59 degreesF - 68 degrees F; likes cold temperature Psychrophiles
These bacterium grow best at 122 degrees F- 158 degrees; likes moderate temperatures Thermophiles
These bacterium grow best at body temperature of 68 F - 113 degrees F; likes warm temperatures Mesophiles
State of active growth of microorganisms (as opposed to the resting or spore stages.) Vegetative Stage
Angstrom A unit that measures visible light
Under normal conditions, how often due most bacteria and other microorganisms reproduce? every 20 minutes
The reproduction process of bacteria. binary fision
T or F: Microorganisms can move by themselves. False (they are known as hitch hikers)
Groups of microbes have specific requirements for growth and survival which tend to limit what two things? The location where microbes can be found or the host in which they may invade.
T or False: A microbe that lives and thrives in the soil may not grow will in the vital organs of humans. True - the reverse may also be true.
How microorganisms are moved/transmitted: By air currents, on particles of dust, in liquids, and on solid objects such as patient care equipment.
Which type of microorganism is more harmful to humans? That which grows AT human body temperature or that which grows at a temperature less than human body temperature. Grows at human body temperature.
What does the chain of infection show? The infectious disease process is a complex interrelationship between source (agent), host, and environment.
The six links in the chain of infection are: Causative agent, reservoir of the agent, portal of exit from the agent, mode of transmission, portal of entry into host, susceptible host.
The first link in the chain of infection; the microorganism that causes an infectious disease. Causative agent (chain of infection)
the ability of an organism to invade the host and cause damage Invasive (a characteristic of causative agent)
The ability of an organism to gain entry into the host and cause disease. Pathogenicity (a characteristic of causative agent)
The degree of pathogenicity. Virulence (a characteristic of causative agent)
The quantity of organisms required to cause disease. Infectious dose (a characteristic of causative agent)
The ability of the organism to survive outside the host. Viability in a free state (a characteristic of causative agent)
The ability of the microorganism to change itself to resist destruction by antibiotics. Ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents
A place in which an infectious agent can survive. (It may not be able to multiply or divide.) Reservoir of the agent (chain of infection)
Individuals who harbor infectious agents, but are not affected by them. Carrier of infection
How to eliminate reservoirs. Good personal hygiene and health habits and proper cleaning, decontamination, and sterilization of hospital equipment.
The path by which an infectious agent leaves the reservoir. Portal of Exit (chain of infection)
How does the agent leave this portal: Respiratory tract through coughing and sneezing
How does the agent leave this portal: Genitourinary tract through urine, vaginal secretions or semen
How does the agent leave this portal: Gastrointestinal tract through vomit or stools
How does the agent leave this portal: Skin/mucous membrane through mucous or wound drainage
How does the agent leave this portal: Blood blood transfusions and contact with blood
How does the agent leave this portal: Transplacental through the placenta from mother to baby
The method of transfer of an infectious agent from the reservoir to a susceptible host. Mode of Transmission (chain of infection)
4 major modes of transmission of an infectious agent: Contact, Common vehicle ( in food, blood, water), Airbourne, Vector-borne (from insects, mosquitoes)
The path used by an infectious agent to enter a susceptible host. Portal of entry (chain of infection)
A person or animal that lacks the ability to resist infection by an infectious agent Susceptible host (chain of infection)
Characteristics that affect the susceptibility of a host and the severity of a disease. Age (very young and old are more susceptible); Disease history; Nutritional Status (inadequate nutrition); Compromised immune status; trauma
Created by: ccostilow186



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