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Hesi Biology


Biology is the study of.... Life
What is the hierarchic system of organization? Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
What is the most inclusive hierarchic system? Kingdom
What is the least inclusive hierarchic system? Species
Who introduced the idea of evolution? When? Charles Darwin, 1895
Charles Darwin proposed that current species arose from a process called what? "Decent with modification"
What steps need to be done for an experiment to be performed? Create a hypothesis, do the experiment, and create a conclusion
Water Water is the substance that makes life possible. The molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to one oxygen atom
What is high specific heat? The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of that molecule by 1 degree celsius
The ability of a molecule to stay bonded or attracted to another molecule of the same substance Cohesion
The ability of water bond to or attract other molecules or substances Adhesion
When water freezes what causes the molecule to spread apart, resulting in the phenomenon of floating? Lattice
What are the most important molecules in biology? Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Generally long chains, or polymers of sugars. The most important of these are storage, structure, and energy Carbohydrates
Better known as fats, but specifically they are fatty acids, phospholipids, and steroids Lipids
These very greatly, but simply are grouped into two categories: saturated and unsaturated fats Fatty acids
Saturated fats Contain now double bonds in their hydrogen tail, and are soild
Unsaturated fats Contain one or more double bonds, and are liquid at room temperature
Consist of two fatty acids of varying length bonded to a phosphate Phospholipids
These are a component of membranes, but more important many are precursors to significant hormones Steroids
This is the most significant contributor to cellar function Protein
Protein Complex, consist of several structure types, and are the largest of the biologic molecules.
Proteins are polymers of 20 molecules called Amino acids
Enzyme A particular type of protein that act to catalyze different reactions or processes, nearly all cellar function is catalyzed by some type of enzyme. They speed up the reactions and it doesnt take much energy to complete task.
Components of the molecules of inheritance nucleic acids
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A unique molecule specific to a particular organism and contains a code that is necessary for replication
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Used in transfer and as a messenger in most species of the genetic code
The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in an organism metaboilsm
In a call, reactions take place in a series of steps called what? These processes from a standpoint of high energy to low energy. All reactions are catalyzed by the use of enzymes Metabolic pathways
What is the fundamental unit of biology? Cell
What are the two types of cells? Eukaryotic and prokaryotic
Cells consist of many components, most of which are referred to as what? Organelles
Prokaryotic cell Lacks a defined nucleus and do not contain membrane-bound organelles
Eukaryotic cell Cells that have a membrane-enclosed nucleus and a series of membrane-bound organelles that carry out the functions of the cell as directed by the nucleus
The first of the organelles is the nucleus, which contains the DNA of the cell in organized masses called what? Chromosomes
Chromosomes contain all of the material for the regeneration of the cell, as well as all instructions for the function of the cell.
Organelle that reads the RNA produced in the nucleus and translate the genetic instructions to produce proteins Ribosomes
Cells with a high rate of protein synthesis generally have a large number of what? Ribosomes
Bound ribosomes are those found attached to what? Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
What is found in the cytoplasm? Free ribosomes
What is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) The ER is a membranous organelle found attached to the nuclear membrane and consists of two continuous parts
Section of an organelle that is responsible for protein synthesis and membrane production Rough ER
Section of an organelle that lacks ribosomes and functions as the detoxification and metabolism of multiple molecules Smooth ER
Inside the cell is a packing, processing and shipping organelle that is called what? This also transport material from the ER throughout the cell Golgi apparatus
Intra-cellular digestion takes place here.... Lysosomes
What can lysosomes hydrolyze? Proteins, fats, sugars, and nucleic acids
Vacuoles Membrane-enclosed structure that has various functions, depending on the cell type
Many cells uptake food through the cell membrane, creating a food vacuole is called what? Phagocytosis
Central vacuoles Functions as storage, waste disposal, protection and hydrolysis
What are two distinct organelles that produce cell energy? Mitochondria and chloroplasts
What are found in most eukaryotic cells and are the site of cellular respiration? Mitochondria
What is found in plants and are the site of photosynthesis? Chloroplasts
What is the most important component of the cell, contributing to protection, communication, and the passage of substance into and out of the cell? Cellular membrane
What molecule is used as currency of the cell? Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Molecule that is used as a precursor to produce greater amounts of ATP in the final steps of respiration Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)
The first step in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate in a process called what Glycolysis
Step 2 the pyruvate is transported into a mitochondrion and used in the first of a series of reactions called what? Krebs cycle
Step 3 begins with oxidation of the NADH molecules to produce oxygen and finally to produce water in a series of steps called Electron transport chain
What is the overall ATP production for every glucose molecule consumed? 32-36 ATP molecules
Chemical process that converts light energy to synthesize carbohydrates Photosynthesis
What are the two stages of photosynthesis? Light reactions and celvin cycle
Reaction that convert solar energy to chemical energy Light reaction
During photosynthesis molecules used in this Process produce sugar. Celvin cycle
What two categories do cell respiration fall into? Sexual and Asexual reproduction
Asexual production that involves bacterial cells Binary fission
When chromosomes bind to the plasma membrane, where it then replicates.. the cell then grows, pinches into two, producing two identical cells. Binary fission
Binary fission and what are the types of asexual reproduction? Mitosis
Process of cell division that occurs in five stages, before pinching into a process called cytokinesis. Mitosis
What are the five stages of mitosis? 1.Prophase 2.Prometaphase 3.Metaphase 4.Anaphase 5.Telophase
Which stage of mitosis are the chromosomes visibly separate, and each duplicated chromosome has two noticeable sister chromatides? Prophase
Which stage of mitosis is the nuclear envelope beginning to dissapear, and the chromosomes begin to attach to the spindle that is forming along the axis? Prometaphase
What stage of mitosis are all the chromosomes aligning along the center of the cell. Metaphase
What stage of mitosis do the chromosomes start to separate, in this phase the chromatides are considered separate chromosomes Anaphase
What is the stage of mitosis when chromosomes gather on either side of the now separated cell? Telophase
The second process associated with cell division is call what? Cytokinesis
How are sexual reproduction different from asexual reproduction? In sexual reproduction, two cells contribute genetic material to the daughter cell, resulting in significantly greater variation.
What is the process that determines how reproductive cells divide in a sexually reproducing organisms? Meiosis
Meiosis has how many stages, how many daughter cells are created? There are two stages Meiosis 1 and meiosis 2, and it created 4 daughter cells.
How many chromosomes do the daughter cells contain from their parents? 50 % or half as many.
Proceeding the events of meiosis what occurs? Interphase
Using garden peas who discovered the basic principles of genetics? Gregor Mendel! He was able to determine that the observable traits in peas were passed from one generation to the next
For every trait expressed in a sexually reproducing organism, there are at least two alternative versions of a gene, called Alleles
What are the two traits that alleles can have? Dominant and recessive
If both alleles are the same type the organism is to be.... Homozygous
If they are different types, the organism is said to be.... Heterozygous
Punnett square A device that is used to predict genotype (the combination of alleles) and phenotype (what traits will be expressed) of the offspring of sexual reproduction.
Who described the structure of DNA and in what year? Watson and Crick, 1953
Each gene along a strand of DNA is a template for protein synthesis. This production begins with a process called... Transcription
What is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase. Both RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language. Transcription
What is the form of RNA in which genetic information transcribed from DNA as a sequence of bases is transferred to a ribosome. Messanger RNA (mRNA)
Why is polarity the most important characteristic of water? The results of the polarity are hydrogen bonding, a high specific heat value, and it's versatile solvent properties
Athletes are often concerned with the question of what they need in their diets to increase muscle mass and strength. What biologic molecule would you recommend that would accomplish this? Proteins
Which organelle would you expect to be present in a cell responsible for detoxifying multiple molecules? Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
A cell from heart muscle would more than likely contain an unusually high proportion of: Mitochondria
What part of cellular respiration produces the greatest amount of ATP? Electron transport chain
When plants do not receive enough water their photosynthetic rated drops. This is because..... Water is a raw material for the light reactions in photosynthesis
Which of the following statements is true about the Krebs cycle and the Calvin cycle? Both results in a net production of ATP and NADH
Why is it important for cells to undergo mitosis? Mitosis produces cells for growth and repair of body tissues
72 chromosomes will be in each gamete? 36
How is information transformed to make a protein? DNA-RNA-Proetin
If an organism is AaBb, what combinations in the gametes is impossible? Its impossible for the gamete to have a aa combination.
What is the typical result of mitosis in humans? Two diploid cells
How does water affect the temperature of a living thing? Water keeps temperature stable
What kind of bond connects sugar and phosphate in DNA? Covalent bond
What is the second part of an organism's scientific name? Species
What is the longest phase in the life of a cell? Interphase
What is the name for a cell that does NOT contain a nucleus? Prokaryote
What is the name of the organelle that organizes protein synthesis? Ribosome
What hormone is produced by the pineal gland? Melatonin
How are lipids different than other organic molecules? They are not water soluble
Created by: Rdumont