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Biology exam

Biology exam chapter 6

TermDefinition
Cytology study of the cell -is the basic unit of life -based on their structure the cell will have a certain function -grow in the ideal environment are either prokaryotic, or eukaryotic -are small in size to max. cell membrane inorder to ensure met needs
Anatomy of the Prokaryotic cell -have a cell membrane -Store DNA & RNA in the ribisomes -NO MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLES - instead has nucleoid region -A capsule of polysacharides is used to surround the cell wall -cell membrane is made of glycoproteins -pili sometimes to stick
Eukaryotic Cell Anatomy - Have a cell (plasma) membrane ( Plants also have cell wall of cellulose) - consist of membranous bound organelles a) cytoplasm b) organelles c)cell (plasma) membrane
Cytoplasm consists of a solution called cytosol or intracellular fluid and organelles both membraneous or non membraneous
Non- membraneous Organelles Cytoskeleton :cell shape and transport Microvilli: short ext. & aid in absorption Cilia: long ext. move substances Flagella: longer ext. for cell movement Centrioles: Seperation of chromosomes Ribisomes: Required for protein synthesis (made of RNA)
Organelles ( endomembrane) 1)Endoplasmic Reticulum (smooth & rough ER) 2) Golgi Apparatus 3) Lysomes 4) Peroxisomes 5) Nucleus 6)Mitochondria
Endoplasmic reticulum are the flat membrane bound sacs in the cytoplasm -smooth ER (w/out ribisomes) does synthesis of fatty acids & phospholipis -Rough ER ( w/ ribisomes) does synthesis of proteins & PREPARES TRANSPORT TO GOLGI
Golgi apparatus processes and sorts membrane proteins from rough ER and forms lysomes
Lysomes are vesicles that contain enzymes called (acid hydrolasas w/pH of 5) that are used to degrade old organells
Peroxisomes contain degradative enzymes that degrade toxic compounds and fatty acids to produce H2O as a bi product
Nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear envelope that contains DNA coils called chromatin that when isnt being divided is called chromosomes reponsible for storage and processing of info into ribisomes
Mitochondria principle site of ATP synthesis " power plant of cell" w/ a double membrane of enzymes involved in energy production
Cell membrane outer boundary of a cell composed of lipids who have hydrophobic tail group & hydrophilic head group -Functions act physical barrier, regulate in and out, moniter & detect, & structural support
3 types of membrane proteins 1) trans membrane protein- (intergral) responsible for receptors in the ion channel 2) lipid anchored proteins 3) peripheral membrane proteins
Cell Junctions act like glue - several types of junctions 1) Plasmodesmata-flow into neighbor cell 2)tight junctions-prevent leak 3)Desmosomes-strong sheet protien (beta) 4) Gap junctions-communicating channels
Cell adhesion molecules Intagrins (CAMS) transmembrane proteins that attach to the cell membrane
Extra cellular matrix -In animal cells b/c they lack a cell wall -made of glycoproteins such as collegen ,proteoglycans, & fibronectin - Bind to intigrins (CAMs) -support -adhesion -movement -regulation
Extracellular enviorment surrounding cells
Intracellular enviorment within a cell
Intercellular between 2 or more cells
cytosol the intracellular fluid that contains ions and proteins excluding organells
Microscopes allow us to see specimens using magnification an enlarged size and resolution an ability to distinguish between two cells
Light Micrscopes beam of light through the lense to see unstrained and strained cells i) brightfield compound microscope II) phase contrast III) flurescense
Electron microscope (EM) uses a beam of electrons for a detailed image 2 types I) scanning cell surface (SEM II ) Transmission cell structure (TEM)
Created by: Marlene0127