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Human Biology C3

Human Structure and Function C3

Macromolecules. Building Blocks/Function In Body/Dietary Source/Recommended Intake Carbohydrate. Carb - Monosaccharides/ Energy source for cell function. Form part of DNA/RNA. Cell membranes (glycolipids and glycoproteins)./Grains, bread, fruit, vegetables/ Medium-High
Macromolecules. Building Blocks/Function In Body/Dietary Source/Recommended Intake Protein Protein - Amino acids / Regulate many body functions - hormones, antibodies, membrane proteins, structural protein. Muscle tissue / Meat, fish, legumes, green leafy vegetables / Medium
Macromolecules. Building Blocks/Function In Body/Dietary Source/Recommended Intake Lipid Lipid - Fatty acids and glycerol / Myelin sheath, heat insulation, physiological regulation, component of cell membranes, energy source / dairy products, meat fish, nuts / low
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is...? The minimum energy expenditure required to support metabolism
BMR contributes - 65-70% of the total metabolic rate on a daily basis
In general, nutritionists suggest - (intake amounts) In general, nutritionists suggest that fats should account for 10 - 25% of your daily kilojoule intake, carbohydrates 45 - 65% and proteins 10 - 35%.
Some people argue that kilojoules (energy) obtained from fat, carbohydrate and protein are “equal”. Why or why not? Eating a healthy balanced diet is much easier to maintain over a long period of time vs yoyo/crash/fad dieting. Fats, carbohydrates and proteins all have very important and distinct roles in the body.
Can you suggest types of food or food additives that might cause gastro-intestinal symptoms or allergies? Gluten, milk/dairy (lactose intolerance), some fruits (fructose intolerance), colours and preservatives, caffeine
Why does damage to the small intestine interfere with nutrient absorption? Could Coeliac disease cause all of Jess’s symptoms (tiredness, irritability, iron-deficiency anaemia and delayed menarche)? Damaging lining of small intestine -less surface area nutrients to be absorbed. May eat a balanced diet she is not absorbing the nutrients properly Essentially under-nourished- lead to iron deficiency, delayed development and make Jess tired and grumpy
Coeliac disease is treated by avoiding all food containing gluten. This requires life-long dietary changes. Do you think this will be easy or difficult? What sort of health professionals may Jess and her Mum need advice from? Difficult - many foods with “hidden gluten” Eating out - hard. Difficult - young girl to not be able to eat a lot of the same foods as friends See a nutritionist/dietician and seek advice from Coeliac WA Counsellor if she is having trouble adapting.
Abdominal Quadrants Right Upper Quadrant. Right Lower Quadrant. Left Upper quadrant. Left lower quadrant
Abdominal regions Right hypochondriac - epigastric - left hypochondiac Right lumbar - umbillical - Left lumbar Right illiac - hypogastric - left illiac
Why do you think it may be more useful to use regions as opposed to quadrants in a clinical setting? Describing the location of abdominal organs using regions is more precise than using quadrants, therefore more clinically useful.
Organs - regions and quadrants Stomach Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Stomach R: Left HC, epigastric Q: L upper Liver R: R HC, epigastric Q: R upper Gall bladder R: R HC Q: R upper Pancreas R: epigastric Q: L upper
Organs - regions and quadrants Small intestine - duoenum Small intestine - jejunum Small intestine - ileum Small intestine - duoenum R: epigastric and umbilical Q: R upper Small intestine - jejunum R: L lumbar and umbilical Q: R and L upper Small intestine - ileum R: hypogastric Q: R and L lower
Organs - regions and quadrants Large intestine – caecum and appendix Large intestine – ascending colon Large intestine – Transverse colon Large intestine – caecum and appendix R: R iliac, hypogastric Q: R lower Large intestine – ascending colon R: R. iliac, R lumbar, R HC Q: R lower, right upper Large intestine – Transverse colon R: R lumbar, umb, L lumbar Q: R upper, L upper
Organs - regions and quadrants Large intestine – descending colon Large intestine – sigmoid colon Large intestine – rectum and anal canal Large intestine – descending colon R: L. iliac, L lumbar, L HCQ: L upper, L lower Large intestine – sigmoid colon R: L iliac, Q: L lower Large intestine – rectum and anal canal R: hypogastric Q: L lower, R lower
What is the function of bile in digestion? Bile emulsifies fat - it breaks down large lipid droplets into smaller ones (emulsify), which allows enzymes to better access the lipid droplets. This promotes lipid digestion and absorption.
What do you think the effect on bile will be if it is no longer stored in the gall bladder? If someone has their gall bladder removed, should they make any changes to their diet? Bile becomes more dilute, and can’t be released “on demand” after a fatty meal. This means thus dietary fats are not broken down as efficiently. Therefore, you would have to reduce the amount of fat you consume to combat the problem.
Pancreatic juice contains digestive enzymes that contribute to the breakdown of which three macromolecules? Carbohydrates, proteins and fats
What does the term mastication mean? To chew food
How does mastication contribute to the process of digestion? They begin mechanical break down by breaking food into small pieces. This allows digestive enzymes to come into contact with a greater surface area of food particles
What is the role of the tongue once food has been placed in the mouth? The tongue pushes the bolus against the hard palate, which in turn directs it toward the back of the throat (oesophagus), which allows it to be swallowed
Identify the different categories of teeth in the adult  incisors, lateral and medial  canines  premolars  molars
How many of each type of tooth does an adult have, and what role does each play in digestion? Incisors- 8 (4 upper,4 lower) Cutting Canines- 4 (2 upper,2 lower) Tearing Pre-molars - 8 (4 upper,4 lower) Grinding/shredding Molars - 12 (6 upper,6 lower) Grinding/shredding
state what the uvula does during swallowing Closes off the nasopharynx during swallowing so food is directed to the oesophagus
How does saliva contribute to digestion? Saliva is composed of serous (water and amylase) and mucous (thicker fluid)- help lubricate the food for easier chewing and swallowing Also contains salivary amylase - enzyme breaks down carbohydrates (chemical digestion of carbs starts in mouth).
The mouth is continuous with the pharynx. The pharynx is subdivided into three parts.  Nasopharynx (at the back of the nose)  Oropharynx (at the back of the mouth  Laryngopharynx (near larynx, the tube that carries air)
What role does the epiglottis play in swallowing? The epiglottis closes off the larynx/trachea and stops food from entering the trachea and therefore the respiratory system
Does the oesophagus lie anterior (in front of) or posterior (behind) to the trachea? The oesophagus is posterior to the trachea
How long does it take liquid to exit the stomach after ingestion? Around 1-2 hours
What about a typical meal. How long do you think that takes to exit the stomach after ingestion? From the time you start chewing a piece of food to the time it becomes chyme in the stomach, it can take up to 4 hours
The walls of the stomach contain a large amount of muscle. Why do you think muscle is needed in this organ? The stomach is responsible for much of the mechanical digestion of food. The muscle in the stomach wall mixes the food with gastric juice.
What is the role of the polyric sphincter? The pyloric sphincter remains partially closed, and when the stomach contracts it allows only a small amount of chyme to flow into the small intestine Regulates movement of chyme from stomach to duodenum (small intestine)
Describe the position of the pancreas in relation to the liver and gallbladder? Pancreas in inferior, medial and posterior to liver/gallbladder - pancreas is retroperitoneal
What is the name of the subdivision of the small intestine that joins the stomach? Duodenum
Name the sections of the small intestine and indicate how long they are: Duodenum, approx. 25cm, C shaped curved Jejenum, approx. 2.5m long Ileum, approx. 3.5m long, joins large intestine
Which subdivision of the small intestine do pancreatic enzymes and bile empty in to? Duodenum.
How is the descending colon positioned in relation to the ascending colon? The descending colon is in the most posterior part of the large intestine lying on the posterior abdominal wall in a retroperitoneal position.
small intestine is 6 m long. Why do you think the small intestines need to be so long? To make sure all the nutrients obtained from the broken down food are absorbed into the blood. Once in the blood they go to the cells where they are used to produce energy or form structures within the cell
How long does it take for food to pass through the small intestines? It takes around 3 - 6 hours for food to travel through the small intestine.
The inner lining of the small intestines has special features that increase its surface area approximately 600-fold. Why do you think these features are necessary? Circular folds, villi and microvilli increase surface area in small intestine Greater the surface area, Greater capacity absorption of nutrients This is why Coeliac Disease causes issues – the intestinal lining damaged, nutrients not absorbed properly
The wall of the small intestines contains smooth muscle. What is the role of muscle in the wall of the small intestine? Move food so it is in close contact with microvilli on top of the cells so all the nutrients can be absorbed. Smooth muscle also propels the chyme along the length of the small intestines (peristalsis) where nutrients are reabsorbed back into the body
What happens to the chyme as it passes from the ileum (last part of the small intestines) through the length of the large intestines to allow faeces to be formed? Last chance reabsorb nutrients into blood, nutrients in form of water/electrolytes (salts). Bacterialarge intestines produce vitamins (B and K), faeces start to form. More water is reabsorbed from chyme, faeces pushed towards rectum, expelled from body
How long does it take food to pass through the large intestines? It takes anywhere from 12-24 hrs for food to pass through the large intestine where water and electrolytes etc are reabsorbed into the body, and faeces are produced (eliminated) as the bi-product
What is peristalsis and what is its function Involuntary wave-like muscular contractions, move food through the digestive tract. Muscle in the tube ahead of the food has to relax and the muscle immediately behind the food contracts, so food is pushed in only one direction
Numerous bacteria are found within the large intestine. What is their function?  production of vitamins B and K  decomposition of bilirubin  breakdown of amino acids  chemical break down of fibre to produce nutrients for their own survival and to nourish the cells lining the colon
What are some of the reasons why BMI is not always an accurate way to measure if a person is at a healthy weight? BMI only looks at overall weight, doesn't take into account proportion of body fat to lean mass or fat distribution, eg. older people or muscular individuals, athletes.
Define- Enzyme protein catalyst that increases the speed of chemical reactions within the body
Define Protein A macromolecule consisting of may amino acids, proteins have different functions in the body
Define - Peristalsis Waves of smooth muscle contraction and relaxation along the digestive tract
Define Mastication The process of chewing food in the mouth
Define mediastinum The central tissue area that separates the thoracic cavity into left and right half, contains heart, trachea, oesophagus and thymus
Define Oesophagus part of the digestive tube that connects the pharynx (or throat) to the stomach
Define epliglottis a piece of cartilage that closes over the larynx and thus prevents food entering the trachea when swallowing
Define Uvula Part of the soft palate that prevents food from entering the nasal cavity when swallowing
Define Stomach Part of the digestive tract that enables storage and mixing of food
Define appendix A small tube connected to the large intestine. It is a redundant part of the digestive system
Define chyme A food bolus churns in the stomach and mixes with various secretions becoming a liquid chyme
Define Intestines Part of digestive tract. Small intestine - digestion and absorption occurs. Large intestine - chyme converted to faeces
Define nutrition The selection and preparation of food for consumption in order ti provide essential nutrients to the body cells
Define Abdominopelvic Region Abdominopelvic cavity divided into 9 localised regions
Define abdominopelvic quadrant Abdominopelvic cavity divided into 4 localised quadrants
Define Carbohydrate Macromolecule consisting of many monosaccharides (sugar)
Define lipid an energy dense macromolecule consisting of glycerol and fatty acids
Name 6 classes of nutrients Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, water and minerals
Give an example of Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides Monosaccharides - glucose, fructose, galactose Disaccharides - sucrose (table sugar), lactose (in milk) Polysaccharides - starch, cellulose
What makes up a triglyceride? Triglyceride is the most common type of lipid (fat) Glycerol and 3 fatty acids
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fat? Saturated has hydrogen molecules attached to nearly every carbon molecule Unsaturated does not, unsaturated considered more healthy
What is a polypeptide? Chain of amino acids linked together
Name a disorder caused by vitamin deficiency Vitamin D - Rickets Vitamin C - Scurvy Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Beriberi
What is an enzyme? Give example of an enzyme produced by the pancreas? Protein that increases the rate of reaction but is not permanently changed by the reaction. E.g. Pancreatic - amylase, lipase, trypsin
3 Accessory organs of the digestive system? Pancreas, Gallbladder, Liver
Function of Mouth? Chew food and turn into bolus (mechanical digestion). Chemical digestion in form of salivary amylase
Function of oesophagus Transport bolus to stomach
Function of stomach Mechanical digestion (Churning food). Chemical digestion, protein digestion (pepsin) Fluid leaving stomach called chyme
Function of Small Intestine Chemical digestion of carbs, proteins and lipids by pancreatic enzymes. Absorption of small molecules into body through wall Gl tract
Function of large intestine Absorption of water, vitamin B & K synthesis (bacteria)
Difference between digestion and absorption Digestion - break down large molecules into small particle. E.g. polysaccharides into monosaccharides Absorption - molecules move from digestive tract into body
Created by: KaraaKinetiic



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