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Genetics

QuestionAnswer
How many chromosomes are there in a haploid human cell? 23 chromosomes
What is a karyotype? The number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
How many chromosomes are there in a diploid human cell? 23 pairs of chromosomes
What are the female sex chromosomes? XX
What are the male sex chromosomes? XY
Each cell has two sets of information, where do these come from? Mother and father
What are genes? They are coding for a specific characteristic
Where are genes located? They are found on locus' on each chromosome
What are alleles? Variations of a characteristic coded for on a gene
What is it called when two genes carry identical alleles? Homozygous
What is it called when two genes carry different alleles? Heterozygous
What is a phenotype? An expression of a characteristics determined by genetics and potentially the environment
What is a genotype? Genetic make-up represented as a letter
What is Mendels first law? The law of segregation
What is Mendels second law? The law of independent assortment
What does the law of segregation state? That two alleles separate during gamete formation (e.g. a Tt parent can produce both T gametes and t gametes)
What is a monohybrid cross? A cross involving one characteristic (two alleles)
What does the law of independent assortment state? Each pair of alleles segregate independently of other pairs of alleles, this is because of random assortment during meiosis
What is dihybrid inheritance? Inheritance of two separate characteristics, each controlled by a pair of genes, the genes for two different characteristics are found on separate chromosomes and so are inherited independently
What is discontinuous variation? Involves clear cut differences where there is no overlap, can be in one group or another and is controlled by one set of genes
What is continuous variation? Involves characteristics that do not fall into groups and are controlled by several genes (polygenic)
What is co-dominance/incomplete dominance? Where two genes or alleles are equally dominant and results in a new phenotype
Define dominant? A gene that 'over powers' a recessive gene and is therefore expressed in the phenotype
Define recessive? A gene that is 'over powered' by a dominant gene and is therefore not expressed
What is a sex-linked disorder? A disorder caused by a gene found on the X chromosome
Created by: deannarosee