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Bio Final

Cell specialization All organisms are composed of cells.. Specialized cells differ in structure (size, shape...) and function (the role they perform in the organism).
Nitrogenous bases nitrogen containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base. They are particularly important since they make up the building blocks of DNA and RNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil.
Osmosis- process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.
Independent assortment formation of random combinations of chromosomes in meiosis and genes on different pairs of homologous chromosomes passage a one of each diploid pair of homologous chromosomes into each gamete independently of each other pair
Anaerobic respiration type of respiration that does not use oxygen.glucose → lactic acid (+ energy released)
Aerobic respiration- process in which glucose is converted into CO2 and H2O in the presence of oxygen, releasing large amounts of ATP
Cell wall rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria
Leucoplast colorless organelle found in plant cells, used for the storage of starch or oil
Activation energy minimum quantity of energy that the reacting species must possess in order to undergo a specified reaction.
Solution liquid mixture in which the minor component (the solute) is uniformly distributed within the major component (the solvent).
Active transport movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.
Solvent able to dissolve other substances
Crenation process resulting from osmosis in which red blood cells, in a hypertonic solution, shrink and acquire a scalloped surface.
Genotype- the genetic constitution of an individual organism.
Eukaryotes organism whose cells contain a nucleus surrounded by a membrane and whose DNA is bound together by proteins (histones) into chromosomes.
Cilia short, microscopic, hairlike vibrating structure
Golgi Body complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport.
Ribosome minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins.
Magnification action or process of magnifying something or being magnified, especially visually.
Resolution which is the smallest separation at which two separate objects can be distinguished (or resolved)
Cytolysis dissolution or disruption of cells, especially by an external agent.
Organelles- any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
Replication process of duplicating or producing an exact copy of a polynucleotide strand such as DNA.
Phenotype- set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment
Gametes mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
Nucleus- dense organelle present in most eukaryotic cells, typically a single rounded structure bounded by a double membrane, containing the genetic material.
Cytoskeleton microscopic network of protein filaments and tubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells, giving them shape and coherence.
Catalyst substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change.
Homeostasis tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes.
Hypothesis- supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.
Solute- minor component in a solution, dissolved in the solvent.
Passive transport- movement of biochemicals and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input.
Crossing over- exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring.
Transcription process by which genetic information represented by a sequence of DNA nucleotides is copied into newly synthesized molecules of RNA, with the DNA serving as a template
Cytoplasm- material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
Cell membrane semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.
Nucleolus small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell during interphase.
Matter physical substance in general, as distinct from mind and spirit; (in physics) that which occupies space and possesses rest mass, especially as distinct from energy.
Biology- study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin, and distribution.
Photosynthesis- process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water.
Created by: evenesky



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