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IGHS Winkels

Biology Chapter 19 Vocabulary

prokaryotes unicellular organisms that lack a nucleus
bacilli rod-shaped prokaryotes
cocci spherical prokaryotes
spirilla spiral and corkscrew-shaped prokaryotes
chemoheterotrophs heterotrophic prokaryotes that take in organic molecules for energy and a supply of carbon
photoheterotrophs These organisms use sunlight for energy, and take in organic compounds as a carbon source.
photoautotrophs use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds and oxygen in a process similar to that used by plants
chemoautotrophs make organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide
obligate aerobes organisms that require a constant supply of oxygen in order to live
obligate anaerobes only live in the absence of oxygen
facultative anaerobes survive with or without oxygen
binary fission an asexual form of reproduction
conjugation a process by which bacteria exchange genetic information
endospore a type of spore
nitrogen fixation the process of converting nitrogen gas into a form plants can use
viruses particles of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases, lipids
capsid a virus's protein coat
bacteriophages viruses that infect bacteria
lytic infection the process of a host cell being lysed and destroyed
lysogenic infections when a host cell makes copies of the virus indefinitely
prophage viral DNA that is embedded in the host's DNA
retroviruses viruses that contain RNA as their genetic information
pathogens disease-causing agents
vaccine a preparation of weakened or killed pathogens
antibiotics compounds that block the growth and reproduction of bacteria
viroids single-stranded RNA molecules that have no surrounding capsids.
prions protein infectious particles
nitrogen fixation process of converting nitrogen gas into a form plants can use
Created by: Winkels



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