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Geology Final Exam

Review for Geology Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
Where do Valley glaciers move and form? in Mountains and move downwards
What is the Mid ocean ridge? an underwater mountain chain, deep narrow rift valley running t hrough its center it is above sea level in iceland
What suppports the theory of continental drift? rock formations, fossils, fit of continents
what connects the magma to the volocnanos opening? vents
what are lacoliths domed shaped masses of igneous rock
What are plutons? intrusive igneous rocks
what are p waves? primary, compressional, fastest and travel through anything
what are s waves? secondart and cant travel through liquid or gas
how can epicenters be found? triangulation of 3 seismographs
what is a u shaped fold in a rock? syncline
what is a reverse fault one side of fault palne driven up over other
What are submarine canyons anchient riverbed below sea level
A(n) _____ is the sharp peak that remains after cirques have cut back into a mountain on several sides horn
Pencil lead is made of _____. graphite
Petroleum, natural gas and propane are all considered _____ because they formed from the buried remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago. fossil fuels
Most geologic resources are ____, they form very slowly and are extracted much faster than nature replaces them. nonrenewable
deep center of the earthquake within the earth’s crust focus
point on the surface directly above the focus epicenter
How do glaciers flow? Basal slip = they slide along their base. Plastic flow = the ice flows plastically (changes shape)
How do glaciers erode rock? Plucking - break off rock and carry the pieces away. Abrasion - rock fragments entrained in the ice act like sandpaper and grind away (abrade) bedrock.
What is geothermal energy? Hot water is produced when groundwater is heated by an igneous intrusion. Steam from the hot water is piped to the surface, where it drives turbines that generate electricity.
What is nuclear energy? Uranium = the energy source for nuclear reactors. Heat energy from fission of uranium is used to generate steam that drives turbines to generate electricity.
Any rock altered in the solid state from preexisting rocks by any combination of heat, pressure, and chemically active fluids. metamorphic rock
Crust The upper part of Earth’s lithosphere, which is separated from the mantle by the Moho; consists of continental crust with an overall granitic composition and thinner, denser oceanic crust made up of basalt and gabbro
system The fundamental unit in the hierarchy of time–related parts that interact in an organized manner. Earth’s systems include the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, as well as Earth’s lithosphere, mantle, and core.
delta A deposit of sediment where a stream or river enters a lake or the ocean
Pangaea Alfred Wegener’s name for a Late Paleozoic supercontinent made up of most of Earth’s landmasses
hotspot Localized zone of melting below the lithosphere; detected by volcanism at the surface.
Wegener Continental Drift
theory An explanation for some natural phenomenon with a large body of supporting evidence; theories must be testable by experiments and/or observations, such as plate tectonic theory.
Magma Molten rock material below the surface
seafloor spreading The phenomenon involving the origin of new oceanic crust at spreading ridges that then moves away from ridges and is eventually consumed at subduction zones
Lava Magma that reaches the surface.
Asthenosphere Part of the upper mantle over which the lithosphere moves; it behaves as a plastic and flows
mass extinction Greatly accelerated extinction rates resulting in marked decrease in biodiversity, such as the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous
outer core/ inner core The inner part of Earth from a depth of about 2900 km consisting of a liquid outer part and a solid inner part; probably composed mostly of iron and nickel.
principle of superposition A principle holding that sedimentary rocks in a vertical sequence formed one on top of the other so that the oldest layer is at the bottom of the sequence whereas the youngest is at the top
Nonconformity An unconformity in which stratified sedimentary rocks overlie an erosion surface cut into igneous or metamorphic rocks
sedimentary rock Any rock composed of (1) particles of preexisting rocks, (2) or made up of minerals derived from solution by inorganic chemical processes or by the activities of organisms, and (3) masses of consolidated organic matter as in coal.
chemical sedimentary rock Rock formed of minerals derived from materials dissolved during weathering
glacier a mass of ice on land that moves by plastic flow and basal slip
principle of original horizontality According to this principle, sediments are deposited in horizontal or nearly horizontal layers
angular unconformity An unconformity below which strata generally dip at a steeper angle than those above.
parent element An unstable element that changes by radioactive decay into a stable daughter element
daughter element An element formed by radioactive decay of another element, for example, argon 40 is the daughter element of potassium 40
valley glacier a glacier confined to a mountain valley
metamorphic rock Any rock altered in the solid state from preexisting rocks by any combination of heat, pressure, and chemically active fluids.
principle of cross-cutting relationships A principle holding that an igneous intrusion or fault must be younger than the rocks it intrudes or cuts across
Disconformity A type of unconformity above and below which the strata are parallel
convergent plate boundary The boundary between two plates that move toward one another
Fossil Remains or traces of prehistoric organisms preserved in rocks
Rock An aggregate of one or more minerals as in granite (feldspars and quartz) and limestone (calcite), but also includes rocklike materials such as natural glass (obsidian) and consolidated organic material (coal).
moraine a ridge or mound of unsorted unstratified debris deposited by a glacier
Hypothesis A provisional explanation for observations that is subject to continual testing and modification if necessary. If well supported by evidence, hypotheses may become theories.
divergent plate boundary The boundary between two plates that move apart; characterized by seismicity, volcanism, and the origin of new oceanic lithosphere
Mantle The inner part of Earth surrounding the core, accounting for about 85% of the planet’s volume; probably composed of peridotite.
transform plate boundary Plate boundary along which adjacent plates slide past one another and crust is neither produced nor destroyed
Atom The smallest unit of matter that retains the characteristics of an element
Lithosphere The outer, rigid part of Earth consisting of the upper mantle, oceanic crust, and continental crust; lies above the asthenosphere.
isostasy the concept of earth’s crust floating on the more dense underlying mantle
igneous rock Rock formed when magma or lava cools and crystallizes and when pyroclastic materials become consolidated.
cirque a steep walled, bowl shaped depression formed on a mountainside by glacial erosion
Mineral Naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solid, having characteristic physical properties and a narrowly defined chemical composition
Created by: ebickley
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