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microbiology

TermDefinition
antibody a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen.
antigen a toxin that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information
host cell a living cell in which a virus multiplies
lymphocyte a form of small leukocyte (white blood cell) with a single round nucleus, occurring especially in the lymphatic system
lysogenic cycle one of two cycles of viral reproduction. Lysogeny is characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome or formations of a circular replicon in the bacterium's cytoplasm
lytic cycle The lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell and its membrane.
membranous envelope double-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
mucous membrane an epithelial tissue that secretes mucus and that lines many body cavities and tubular organs including the gut and respiratory passages
nucleic acid core a core is The part of a nuclear reactor where binary fission occurs
phagocytic white blood cell White blood cells that break down bacteria and other microorganisms, foreign particles, and cellular debris
primary line of defence includes physical and chemical barriers that are always ready and prepared to defend the body from infection. These include your skin, tears, mucus, cilia, stomach acid, urine flow, 'friendly' bacteria and white blood cells called neutrophils
protein capsid A capsid is the protein shell of a virus. It consists of several oligomeric structural subunits made of protein called protomers.
RNA ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA carries the genetic information
secondary line of defence the second line of defence is a group of cells, tissues and organs that work together to protect the body. This is the immune system.
tertiary line of defence Tetiary line of defense are your antibodies
viral specificity viral specificity means that a virus is selective in the organisms it infects, the type of cells and the disease it produces
white blood cell cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders
aerobic respiration the process most living things undergo to use food energy
antibiotic medicine hat inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms
antiseptic denoting substances that prevent the growth of disease-causing microorganisms
binary fission a kind of asexual reproduction. It is the most common form of reproduction in prokaryotes and occurs in some single-celled eukaryotes. After replicating its genetic material, the cell divides into two nearly equal sized daughter cells
classification process by which scientists group living organisms. Organisms are classified based on how similar they are
conjugation direct transfer of DNA from one bacterial cell to another bacterial cell
disinfectant chemical liquid that destroys bacteria.
ecological role position in the branch of biology dealing with the relations and interactions between organisms and their environment, including other organisms
fermentation the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat.
motility the ability of organisms and fluid to move or get around
mutate/mutation changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that is passed on to generations, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA, or the deletion, insertion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes or chromosomes
photosynthesis process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water.
prokaryote any of the typically unicellular microorganisms that lack a distinct nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
resistant/resistance natural or genetic ability of an organism to avoid or repel attack by biotic agents or to withstand the effects of abiotic agents
Created by: sophier