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Biology

Nervous & Digestive Systems Study Guide

QuestionAnswer
What is the difference between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system? Central nervous system (CNS) includes brain and spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of neurons.
List the three defining qualities of the nervous system. Quick, accurate, and resets itself.
Describe how neural impulses travel. Use at least six descriptions from the “Modeling a Nerve Impulse” lab. 1:in continuous chain reaction, 2:need to be reset, 3:travel constant speed, 4:move in 1 direction, 5:use energy as impulse travels, 6:must reach threshold to fire, 7:stop when neuron is damaged, 8:use neurotransmitters to get across synapse
Explain the difference between a reaction and a reflex. Reactions involve integration (interpretation by the brain). Reflexes deliver the same response for a specific stimulus. Reflexes are controlled by dorsal root ganglia.
Describe the neural impulse pathway of a reflex. sensory neurons -- spinal cord -- motor neurons
Describe the neural impulse pathway of reaction. sensory neurons -- spinal cord -- brain -- spinal cord -- motor neurons
Describe or list the function of each part of the neuron: dendrite receives nerve impulse
Describe or list the function of each part of the neuron: axon delivers nerve impulse from cell body to synapse
Describe or list the function of each part of the neuron: synapse space between neurons
Describe or list the function of each part of the neuron: neurotransmitter chemicals which carry nerve impulses from one neuron to the next
Describe or list the function of each part of the neuron: myelin sheath axon coating which speeds up nerve signals
Describe or list the function of each part of the neuron: cell body main part of neuron, contains nucleus
Which part of the brain controls speech? cerebrum
Which part of the brain controls memory? cerebrum
Which part of the brain controls balance cerebellum
Which part of the brain controls heart rate? brain stem
Which part of the brain controls breathing? brain stem
Which part of the brain controls coordination of body? cerebellum
Which part of the brain controls muscle memory? cerebellum
Which part of the brain controls reflexes? spinal cord
Which part of the brain controls emotions? cerebrum
List the five steps of digestion: 1:get food, 2:break food down, 3:absorb and deliver nutrients, 4: use and store nutrients, 5:get rid of waste
Briefly describe the function of: mouth produces amylase to break down starch. Contains teeth used for mechanical digestion
Briefly describe the function of: esphagus passageway from mouth to stomach
Briefly describe the function of: stomach where proteins start to get broken down
Briefly describe the function of: small intestines where nutrients and sugar gets absorbed
Briefly describe the function of: large intestine home for bacteria which supply enzymes used for digestion
Explain the difference between a heterotroph and an autotroph. Heterotrophs eat other organism. Autotroph make their own food.
Explain the difference between a one-way and a two-way digestive system. Include the terms ‘tube’ and ‘gastrovascular cavity’. One way digestive systems are like a tube. Food goes in one end and exits the other end. Two way digestive systems involve food entering and exiting the gastrovascular cavity through the same hole.
Explain intracellular digestion and extracellular digestion. Intracellular digestion digests food particles within the cell. Take place in 1-celled organ. Extracellular digestion allows food to be larger than cells.
What are the characteristics of animals? Heterotrophic, multicellular eukaryotes, sexual reproduction, Motility/movement
How would you describe the way animals use their systems to meet life’s challenges? Various possible answers
What are the five main parts of the central nervous system (CNS)? Cerebrum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brain stem, spinal cord
What is the function of each part of the CNS? Cerebrum: controls conscious thoughts, Cerebral cortex: process sensory & motor, Cerebellum: coordinates motion/stores automatic memories, Brain stem: regulates basic functions; breathing & heart beat, Spinal cord: carries information to & from brain
What are the two main parts of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)? Sensory and motor neurons
What is the basic structure of a neuron? Axon, dendrite, cell body, myelin sheath, and neurotransmitter
What is the function of each part of a neuron? Axon: carry info away from cell body Dendrite: carry impulse to cell body Cell body: house organelles Myelin sheath: insulate axon
What are five key aspects of how neural impulses travel? Threshold, same speed, refractory period, one direction travel, neurotransmitters required
What are two ways the nervous system interacts with other body systems? Various possible answers
What is the balanced chemical equation for photosynthesis? 6CO2 + 6H2O + light  C6H12O6 + 6O2
What is the balanced chemical equation for cellular respiration? C6H12O6 + 6O2 -- 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
What is the difference between mechanical and chemical digestion? Mechanical breaks food into small pieces, chemical breaks it into smaller molecules
What is the difference between intracellular and extracellular digestion? Intracellular means food is digested inside of cells, extracellular means it is digested outside of cells
What is the advantage of extracellular digestion versus intracellular digestion? Extracellular allows food to be larger than cells
How does the digestive system benefit from the nervous system? How does it benefit the nervous system? Various answers possible
Created by: PLHSBiology1