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Chapter 14

Red Blood Cells Are relatively large microscopic cells without nuclei. They transport oxygen from the lungs to all of the living tissues of the body, and carry away carbon dioxide.
White Blood Cells Make up a very small part of blood volume, most are produced in bone marrow. They attack bacteria, viruses, and fungi.
Platelets Are cell fragments without nuclei that work with blood clotting chemicals at the site of wounds. Individual platelets are about 1/3 the size of red cells.
Plasma Is the relatively clear, yellow tinted water, sugar, fat, protein and salt solution which carries the red cells, white cells, and platelets.
Erythrocytes Are red blood cells, formed elements.
Bioconcave Lacks nuclei and mitochondria filled with hemoglobin. Enables RBC's to form stacks that flow through narrow blood vessels. Enables RBC's to flex, using spectrin protein.
Erythropoietin Hormone that controls the production of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes are made via hypoxia.
Hematopoiesis Blood formation, occurs in the red bone, starts with hemocystoblast. Begins with hemocystoblast then reticulocytes and finally erythrocytes.
Hemoglobins Oxygen-carrying; each RBC is about 1/3 hemoglobin by volume. When hemoglobin combines with oxygen, the resulting oxyhemoglobin is bright red. When the oxygen is released, the resulting deoxyhemoglobin is darker.
Composition of Hemoglobin 4 globular protein subunits, each composed of a protein chain tightly associated with a non-protein heme group.
Function of Hemoglobin Carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body; helps in transportation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions back into the lungs.
Neutrophils Fights infection
Eosinophils Fights off worms and allergic reactions.
Basophils Release heparin and histamine.
Monocytes Phagocytize bacteria, dead cells and other in tissue.
Lymphocytes Attack microorganisms, tumor cells, and transplanted cells.
Plasma Clear, straw-colored liquid part of the blood in which cells and platelets are suspended. 92% water; contains a complex mixture of organic and inorganic molecules biochemicals including amino acids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and a variety of lipids.
Functions of Plasma Carrying nutrients, gases hormones, vitamins; regulate fluid and electrolyte balance; maintaining a favorable pH.
Plasma Proteins Most abundant dissolved solute - albumins: help maintain colloid osmotic pressure. Globulin: Alpha-beta-transport lipids and vitamins; gamma-constitute the antibodies of immunity; Fibrinogen: Plays a key role in blood coagulation.
Blood Gases Oxygen and carbon dioxide
Plasma Nutrients Amino acids, simple sugars, nucleotides and lipids absorbed from digestive tract.
Non-proteins Nitrogenous Substance (NPNs) Group includes amino acids, urea, uric acid, creatine, and creatinine.
Electrolytes Absorbed from the intestine or released as by-products of cellular metabolism. Include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate phosphate and sulfate ions. Important in maintaining osmotic pressure and pH of plasma.
Created by: macy.patrice



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