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Unit 7: Evolution

TermsDefinitions
Spontaneous Generation Idea of nonliving materials could produce life. Disproved by Redi and Pasteur.
Biogenesis Idea that living organisms only come from other living organisms.
Miller and Urey Tested the hypothesis that life began from simple organic molecules (proteins-amino acids) by creating the conditions of early within the lab.
Earth's Early Atmosphere LACKED OXYGEN
Prokaryotes First living organisms found on earth according to evolutionists.
Endosymbiotic Theory Theory that states that eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells.
Evolution Theory that describe the way organisms change (evolve) over a period of time.
Artificial Selection Process by which humans change a species by breeding it for certain desirable traits.
Natural Selection Process by which individuals that have inherited beneficial adaptations produce more offspring on average than do other individuals. Also known as survival of the fittest!
4 Parts of Natural Selection 1.Overproduction 2.Variations 3.Adaptations 4.Descent with Modification
Overproduction Species produces more offspring to ensure that some are able to live and reproduce.
Variations Provide species with a greater chance of survival so adaptations of variations a can be passed successfully to the next generation.
Adaptations Any inherited characteristics or trait that increases and organism's chance of survival.
Descent with Modification Idea that each living species has descended with changes from other species over time.
Fitness Ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its specific environment.
Speciation Adaptations are passed on and new species may evolve from a common ancestor.
Common Descent Evolution Principle that states that all living and extinct species were derived from a common ancestor.
Homologous Structures Body parts are similar in structure,but different in function. Ex:Bird and Seal (Similar bone structure,but different function). Bird flies and Seal swims! (Same ancestors,different function!)
Analogous Structures Body parts are similar in function,but different in structure Ex: Bats and Butterfly (Both fly,but they evolve from different ancestors)
Vestigial Structures Body structure that has no present day function,but was probably useful to an ancestor. Ex: Femur bone in whales
Embryology Study of embryos, which are the earliest stage of growth and development of plants and animals.
Biochemistry Similar DNA & RNA composition! Humans and Chimpanzees have a 98% similarity in DNA base sequences!
Divergent Evolution Process in which a trait held by a common ancestor evolves into different variations over time. Ex: Bird wing & dog leg! (HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES)
Co-evolution Occurs when closely interacting species exert selective pressures on each other, so that they evolve together. Ex: Humming Birds and Flowers (They use each other)
Stabilizing Selection Occurs when intermediate phenotypes are favored by natural selection. (Favors Average) Ex: Human Birth Weight
Directional Selection Occurs when one extreme phenotype is favored by natural selection. (Favors 1 trait over the other). Ex: Drug resistance bacteria
Disruptive Selection Occurs when both extreme phenotypes are favored by selection. (Favors both extreme phenotypes). Ex: Darwin Finches Beak Size, large and small beaks favored
Geographical Isolation Occurs when a barrier divides a population & prevents interbreeding in population.
Reproductive Isolation Occurs when formerly interbreeding organisms can no longer mate & produce offspring.
Created by: 00011331