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A2 biology 4.2.3

OCR biology - animal behaviour

QuestionAnswer
What is behaviour? The responses of an organism to its environment that increase the chance of survival
What is innate behaviour? Genetically determined, inherited, not learned, similar among members of a species, always performed in the same way to a certain stimulus, unintelligent (6)
Which organisms is innate behaviour used predominantly by? Invertebrates mainly use innate behaviour: solitary, don't care for young, short life spans
What are the advantages of innate behaviour to organisms? Escape reflex - to escape predators. Kinesis - to locate favourable conditions. Taxes - to locate food, favourable conditions.
What is a reflex + eg? An involuntary response to a stimulus - escape reflex allows an organism to escape predators e.g. earthworm withdraws underground upon detecting vibrations
What is a kinesis + eg? Non-directional orientation behaviour in which rate of movement increases in unfavourable conditions, extent of increase depends on intensity of stimulus. Woodlice move rapidly + randomly in BRIGHT/ DRY condition until they reach DARK/ DAMP conditions
What is a taxis + eg? Directional orientation behaviour - phototaxis, chemotaxis - positive/ negative. Nematode worm has chemoreceptors in its lips that detect chemical concentrations in air, then it moves up/ down concentration gradient
How can complex innate behaviours be achieved + eg? Linking together a seires of innate behaviours e.g. waggle dance by worker honey bees communicates the distance and direction of a food source - 1s of dance =1km of distance, angle between vertical and waggle = direction
What is learned behaviour? Determined by genes+ environment, not passed to offpsring by reproduction (maybe by reproduction), adapted by experience/ changing conditions, varies between members of the same species, intelligent
Which type of organisms use learned behaviour most? Animals with long lifespans, live in groups, care for young e.g. mammals
List the types of learned behaviour Habituation, imprinting, classical condition, operant conditions, latent learning, insight learning
What is habitutation +eg? Animal learns to not respond to a stimulus because repeated exposure results in neither reward or punishment e.g. birds learn to ignore a scarecrow
What is imprinting + eg? Young animals become attached to "imprinted on" the first moving thing they see after birth, usually the parent, occurs in sensitive period. Allows them to gain food/ protection + learn skills from parent
What is classical conditioning? Animal learns to associate a pair of events, responds to a conditioned stimulus (previously a neutral stimulus) with a new conditioned response (reflex action), passive, involuntary
Give an example of classical conditioning Pavlov. Before conditioning: US (food)-> UR (salivating), NS doesn't cause the response. During conditioning: US + NS (bell) -> UR. After conditioning: CS (bell) -> CR (salivating)
What is operant conditioning? Where an animal learns to associate an operation with a reward / punishment (reinforce) which changes the frequency of the behaviour. Active, voluntary, requires trial and error
Compare and contrast classical and operant conditioning *** Similarities: animals learn to associate 2 things.... Differences: CC is passive, involuntary and creates a new reflex action, while OC is active, voluntary and requeris trial and error
What is latent learning? Where an animal explores + retains information about its surroundings that isn't immediately useful but may be essential for survival int eh future e.g. to escape predators
What is insight learning? The highest form of learning, the ability to think and reason in order to solve problems that don't resemble reflex responses or require trial and error, the solution is remembered
Define social behaviour The interaction between species that live in a group, with defined roles for each member
Describe the social organisation in chimpanzees Fission-fusion groups of 10, community of 50. Males remain in natal groups, females emigrate at sexual maturity. Hierarchy: members have defined statuses/roles, higher status = better access to mates/ food. 1 alpha male, adult males dominate, male status
Describe the maternal care in chimpanzees Infants can't initially support their own body weight + have poor grasping reflex. Continual ventral-ventral contact for first 30 days, almost continual contact for next 2 years. Wean at age 4-5
Describe communication in chimpanzees Vocal communication for greeting, altering other chimpanzees to food/ danger, pant hoot is unique to each individual. Body stance - aggressive (bipedal), submissive (crouching, extending a hand). Facial expressions - barred teeth = fear. Friendly physical
What are the advantages of social behaviour in chimpanzees? Group protection and maternal care improves survival chance of few offspring. Infants acquire learned behaviour by observing/ interacting with other members. Group is better at detecting/ deterring predators. Share knowledge of food supplies
What is dopamine + what is it a precursor for? Hormone + neurotransmitter, precursor for adrenaline + noradrenaline
What are high/ normal/ low levels of dopamine linked to? High - psychosis e.g. schizophrenia. Normal - arousal, creativity. Low - Parkinson's disease (treatment with L-dopa is linked to compulsive gambling)
Define: psychosis Mental health condition, characterised by impaired perception, impulse control and understanding of reality
How many dopamine receptors are there? What effects do they have? 5, each coded for by a different gene, each has many alleles. The amount and effects of dopamine in the brain are determined by the receptor type.
How do the variants of the DRD4 gene differ and what are certain variants linked to? Different alleles have different numbers of tandem repeats. Some alleles are linked to: ADHD, risk-taking, addictive behaviours (smoking, gambling)
Created by: 11043