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Biology Ch. 1

The Science of Life

TermDefinition
adaptation the process of becoming adapted to an environment; an anatomical, physiological, or behavioral change that improves a population's ability to survive
base unit one of the fundamental units of measurement that describes length, mass, time, and other quantities and from which other units are derived
biological molecule chemical compound that provides physical structure and brings about movement, energy use, and other cellular functions
biology the study of life
cell the smallest unit of independently functioning life
cell division the formation of two cells from one existing cells
compound light microscope an instrument that magnifies small objects so that they can be seen easily; has two or more lenses
control group a group that serves as the standard of comparison with another group to which the control group is identical except for one factor
dependent variable the factor that is changed as a result of the manipulation of the independent variable
development the process by which an organism grows
domain one of three broad groups that all living things fall into-- archaea, bacteria, eukarya
ecology the study of interactions of living organisms with one another and their environment
ecosystem a community of organisms and their abiotic environment
evolution change over time
experiment a procedure that is carried out under controlled conditions to discover, demonstrate, or test a fact, theory, or general truth
experimental group a group that is identical to the control group except for the independent variable
eyepiece part of a light microscope that magnifies the image
gene the most basic physical unit of hereidity; a segment of nucleic acids that codes for a functional unit of RNA and/or a protein
homeostasis the maintenance of a constant internal state in a changing environment
hypothesis a testable idea or explanation that leads to scientific investigation
independent variable the factor that is directly manipulated
kingdom one taxonomic level below domain--archaea, bacteria, protisa, fungi, plantae, animalia
magnification the increase of an object's apparent size by using lenses or mirrors
metabolism the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism
metric system decimal-based standar system of measurement that is used by scientists
multicellular describes a mass that is made of many cells
natural selection survival of the fittest--organism better adapted to the environment survive and reproduce
nosepiece part of the light microscope that holds the objective lens in place above the specimen
objective lens part of the light microscope that is located directly above the specimen and magnifies its image
observation the process of obtaining information using the senses
organ a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
organelle one of the small bodies that are found in the cytoplasm of a cell, specialized to perform a specific function
organization the high degree of order within an organism's internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world
prediction a statement made in advance that expresses the results that will be obtained from a hypothesis
reproduction the process of producing offspring
resolution the ability to form images with fine detail
scanning electron microscope (SEM) microscope that produces an enlarged, three-dimensional image of an object by using a beam of electrons rather than light
scientific methods a series of steps followed to solve problems
stage a platform of a light microscope that supports the slide holding the specimen
theory a system of ideas that explains many related observations and is supported by a large body of evidence acquired through scientific investigation
tissue a group of similar cells that perform a common function
transmission electron microscope (TEM) a microscope that transmits a beam of electrons through a very thin slice of specimen and that can magnify up to 200,000 times
unicellular describes and organism that consists of a single cell
Created by: alicemb00