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Biology Midterm Exam

The definition of Biology is the study of life
The basic structural unit of life cell
Examples of organisms are humans, mammals, reptiles, (any living thing)
The characteristics of life are 1.)Organization and presence of one or more cells2.)Response to a stimulus3.)Homeostasis4.)Metabolism5.)Growth and development6.)Reproduction7.)Change through time.
Asexual reproduction is reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes; offspring are identical to parents
what composes the definition of living things? the seven characteristics of life
What is homeostasis? homeostasis is the maintaining of stable internal conditions
In the universal system of measurement, length is measured in meters
What is the length of a kilometer? 1,000 meters
A light microscope can extend the ability to see an object up to 400 times
Hypothesis a proposed explanation for the way a particular aspect of the natural world functions.
Observation the act of perceiving a natural occurrence that causes someone to pose a question.
experiment used to test a hypothesis and its predictions.
data a body of facts and information collected during an experiment
variable the part of an experiment that is tested
control a variable of comparison.
Theory a coherent group of general propositions used as principles of explanation for a class of phenomena.
conclusion the final statement summarizing findings of an experiment
What is the sequence of steps for the scientific method?: 1.)Observation2.)Hypothesis3.)Prediction4.)Experiment5.)Analyze6.)Conclusion
determine the steps of a controlled experiment compares an experimental group and a control group and has independent and dependent variables.
determine the hypothesis, variables, and control group in an experiment Find a statement explaining observations, and data can be treated. Now, compare variables to the control group
Nucleotide a monomer of DNA and RNA with nitrogen, phosphate, and sugar
Hydrolysis chemical decomposition in which a compound is split into other compounds by reacting with water.
Amino acid building block or proteins; a class of organic compounds containing at least one amino group
Condensation reaction a chemical reaction that produces H2O
Glucose C6*H12*O6, simple sugar; a result of photosynthesis
Organic molecules that catalyze reactions in living systems are...._________ enzymes
A compound found in living things that supplies the energy in its chemical bonds directly to cells is glucose
Who coined the term “cell”? Robert Hooke
This organism is believed to be the first photosynthetic organisms on earth bacteria
Ribosome cell organelle composed of RNA and Protein; the site of protein synthesize
Rough endoplasmic reticulum a system of flattened sacs with ribosome’s that produce phospholipids and proteins.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum builds lipids; has no ribosome’s
Nucleus control center of cell; contains genetic information.
Golgi apparatus a system of flattened membranous eukaryotic sacs containing new proteins or lipids; modifies proteins for export.
Lysosome vesicles containing digestive enzymes; found in animal cells
Mitochondrion organelles that transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP; produce energy; power house of the cell (sit of aerobic respiration).
what is the difference between cilia and flagella? Cilia: hair-like structures that assist in cell movement.Flagella: whip-like tail; assist in cell movement.
Fatty acid .
Dipeptide .
Disaccharide .
Water .
Nucleotide .
A chain of 50 or more amino acids would be called a....________ polypeptide
A solution with a pH of 2 would be best described as being acidic
what determines the speed or rate of a chemical reaction? activation energy, temperature, and pH.
Animal and plant cells are examples of (prokaryotes or eukaryotes) eukaryotes
Give examples of eukaryotes and prokaryotes example of a prokaryotic cell: bacterial cell.example of a eukaryotic cell: plant and animal cell
Prokaryotes belong to the kingdom archaebacteria and monera
whats the differences between RNA and DNA? RNA: moves through nuclear pores to the cytoplasm to carry out functions, ribonucleic acid, single helix.DNA: contains genetic information; found in nucleus; transcribed into RNA; double helix; deoxyribonucleic acid
Another name for the membrane that surrounds the organelles and the cell is plasma membrane.
The "head" of the membrane bilayer molecule is hydrophilic
Water is (polar or nonpolar) polar
The term used to state that a cell only allows certain substances in and out is selectively permeable.
Which is more efficient – large cell or a small cell? small cell
parts of the Cell Theory 1.) All living things are composed of cells.2.) Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in an organism.3.) Cells come only from the reproduction of other cells.
Free ribosomes make..._____ protein
The golgi apparatus is responsible for packages, processes, and secretes proteins for export.
Smooth E.R. makes lipids and calcium
Rough E.R. contains ribosomes that make proteins(digestive enzymes)
Chloroplasts are the site of ______ synthesis? Photo
Prokaryote organisms are (multicellular or unicellular) unicellular
The nucleolus is the site of _______ synthesis ribosome
_______ contain digestive enzymes and get rid of toxins and old organelles lysosomes
that have a high energy requirement generally have many mitochondrion
Organelles that are surrounded by two membranes and contain DNA are the nucleus and plastids.
Cells that form the surface coverings of animal bodies constitute epithelial tissue (skin)
The process in which cells become restricted to carrying out one or a few functions is called cell specialization.
The stomach is an example of the level of organization called an organ.
Who proposed the “Fluid Mosaic Model”? Singer and Nicholson
Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have ribosomes. (T or F) true.
The DNA in prokaryotes is non-existent(T or F) false.
A functional group changes the structure of a compound but does not alter its chemical properties(T or F) true
Skin is a type of lipid (T or F) false
Glucose is a monosaccharide (T or F) true
Cellulose is a type of carbohydrate. (T or F) true
In a triple bond, three pairs of electrons are shared between three atoms (T or F) false
Amino acids become linked together by peptide bonds during hydrolysis reactions (T or F) false
Nucleic acids function primarily to carry genetic instructions and direct cellular activities (T or F) true
DNA contains a five carbon sugar called________ deoxyribose
Water clings to itself in a property called_________ cohesion
Hydrogen bonding: the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge.(weak bond)
When sodium chloride is dissolved in water, the sodium ions: disassociate.
Organic compounds contain: Carbon atoms.
ATP releases energy when: a covalent bond is broken.
The slight positive and slight negative charge in a molecule results in the molecule being called: polar
Energy associated with movement is called: kinetic energy.
Taken together, all of the thousands of chemical reactions that take place in a plant or animal cell are called: metabolism.
What is a heterotroph? What is an autotroph? heterotroph: organisms that can't produce their own food; get energy from other foods.autotrophs: organisms that use energy from photosynthesis as food
The first living organism on earth was most likely a: bacteria.
Adaptation: the ability of a species to survive in a particular environment.
The theory that species change over time is: evolution
The branch of biology that studies the interactions of organisms with one another and their environment is called: ecology.
An example of asexual reproduction is: binary fission
A way to produce new cells in multicellular organisms is called: mitosis
Sexual reproduction involves the mixing of_______ between mates. gametes
Bacteria go through a special kind of sexual reproduction called: conjugation
The specialized structure that bacteria use to transfer plasmids between each other and also for attachment to host cells is called the: conjugation tubule.
When genetic information is passed from parent to offspring, the process is called: sexual reproduction.
In DNA, adenine always pairs with: thymine.
In RNA, adenine always pairs with: uracil
In DNA or RNA, guanine always pairs with: cytosine.
Cells contain membrane bound structures that have a specific function called: organelles.
What it the sum total of all chemical reactions?: metabolism.
This is a chemical reaction that breaks down a substance: hydrolysis
_________maintains a stable internal environment by controlling metabolism Homeostasis
________ is a protein that lowers activation energy for reactions to occur. Enzyme
If the temperature gets too hot, the protein will: denature
If the temperature gets too cold, the protein will: denature.
Always carry the microscope by its arm and the: base
In order to obtain the correct magnification for a compound microscope you must multiply the_________ by the objective lens. ocular
When you first put a slide on the stage for viewing, you must use the __________ to focus. 4x or 10x objectives
The stage clips are for holding the ________in place slide
The _________is adjusted to let more or less light into the viewing area. diaphragm
The ___________ moves the objective around revolving nosepiece
What is the magnifying power of the ocular lens?: 10x
The __________ is an empty tube for light to pass through body tube
This combined with the ocular lens gives the total magnification: objective.
The membrane component that allows larger materials in and out of the cell is called: carrier protein.
The lipid bilayer contains two general types of proteins: peripheral and integral
The membrane component that binds with messengers and allows messages into the cell is called: integral protein
A ________ protein is embedded in the membrane integral
A _________ protein sticks out at the interior and exterior of a cell. carrier
______ are the building blocks of molecules. Atoms.
A _____is many basic units put together. cell
Cells are different sizes and shapes due to their: functions
What type of cell lacks a nucleus, and contains plasmids and ribosomes?: prokaryotic cell.
What type of cell has a cell wall, contains plastids and large vacuoles?: plant cells.
What kind of cell has a cell membrane, mitochondria and small vacuoles?: animal cells.
Chlorophyll A absorbs: more red light and less blue light.
The photosystems and electron transport chains are located in the: thylakoid membrane
Both photosystem I and photosystem II contain: pigments of Chlorophyll A.
Water participates directly in the light reactions of photosynthesis by: providing H+ atoms.
The energy that is used to establish the proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane comes from the excited electrons as they pass along the electron transport chain of photosystem II.
What reaction is catalyzed by RuBP carboxylase?: CO2 fixation (Kreb's Cycle)
Electrons needed to reestablish the cholorphyll in photosystem II come from: splitting of water molecules.
Oxygen is a product of the process of: Photosynthesis.
The number of phosphate groups in an ADP molecule is: 2
The ultimate source of energy for almost all living things is: the sun.
Carotenoids: light absorbing accessory pigments in photosynthesis
ATP synthase: an enzyme located in the thylakoid membrane, makes ATP by adding a phosphate group to ADP.
Photosystem: protein complex in thylakoid membrane; helps with photosynthesis; only in plant cells
PGAL: a 3 carbon compound, 2nd step of Calvin cycle
RuBP: Ribulose bisphospate, a 5 carbon substrate involved in carbon fixation; 1st step in Calvin cycle.
Visible spectrum: the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be seen by the human eye.
Chlorophyll: a green pigment present in most plants; used in photosynthesis
Biochemical pathway: a series of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is used in the next reaction.
What product of the light reactions of photosynthesis is released and does not participate further in photosynthesis?: oxygen.
Where does the energy required for the Calvin cycle originate?: ATP +NADPH.
Proteins are moved into the thylakoid using energy from: excited electrons of PGAL
Carbon atoms are fixed into organic compounds in what cycle: Calvin cycle
To produce the same amount of carbohydrate, C4 plants require less: H2O
Citric acid: 6 carbon; formed in Krebs Cycle; intermediate in the metabolism of carbohydrates.
Fermentation: cells make limited amounts of ATP by converting glucose into lactic acid or ethyl alcohol- anaerobic respiration.
NAD+: 2 molecules of nicoeinamde and dinucleotide; accepts electrons during redox reactions.
Cytosol: aqueous fluid bathes organelles inside of cell membrane
Cell membrane: lipid bilayer that surrounds cell.
Aerobic respiration: the use of oxygen in the breakdown of something to create energy.
Glycolysis: glucose is oxidized to pyruvic acid
Kilocalorie: 1,000 calories, often measures energy
In aerobic respiration, glucose is converted into _____________when they enter the Kreb's cycle. 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
What are the products of lactic acid fermentation in yeasts?: ethyl alcohol and CO2
cellular respiration: uses energy in organic compound to produce ATP.
Know the amounts of ATP's produced in each stage of cellular respiration: 3 units of ATP
What molecules donate electrons to the electron transport chain?: FADH2 + NADPH
The breakdown of organic compounds to produce ATP is: cellular respiration.
What does glycolysis produce? ATP
What molecule is generated from lactic acid and alcoholic fermentations?: NAD+.
During glycolysis (aerobic respiration), pyruvic acid produces CO2, NADH, H+, and: PGAL.
The electron transport chain is driven by what two products?: NADPH and FADH2.
What happens to electrons as they are transported along the electron transport chain?: electrons loose energy.
The energy efficiency of aerobic respiration is: 39%.
Where does glycolysis take place?: cytosol of cell.
During glycolysis, glucose is: oxidized.
Lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation produce: NAD.
The efficiency of glycolysis is: 2%
Describe anaerobic pathways and products. Anaerobic pathways of cellular respiration that does not require oxygen. It produces nearly 20 times as much ATP as is produced by glycoysis alone.
Pyruvic acid is a product of what reaction?: glycolysis
Aerobic respiration requires: Oxygen
What is the final product of the Krebs cycle?: NADH, ATP, FADH.
Where is most amount of ATP generated in cellular respiration?: the electron transport chain.
What is the name for the initial phase of aerobic and anaerobic respirations?: Glycolysis
How much energy is produced in fermentation vs. aerobic respiration?: 38 ATP molecules
How much energy is gained through glycolysis?: 2 ATP molecules
The citric acid cycle completes the breakdown of glucose to: CO2 and H2O
Which cycle yields the most energy?: Krebs cycle.
Created by: delsadancer



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