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Biology Vocab

Chapter 17

TermDefinition
Taxonomy Science of classifying and naming organisms.
Taxon (plural: taxa) Level within the Linnaean system of classification (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, or species) that is organized into a nested hierarchy.
Binomial Nomenclature Naming system in which each species is given a two-part scientific name (genus and species) using Latin words.
Genus First name in binomial nomenclature; the second most specific taxon in the Linnaean classification system that includes one or more physically similar species, which are thought to be closely related.
Phylogeny Evolutionary history of a group of related species.
Cladistics Method of organizing species by evolutionary relationships in which species are grouped according to the other that they diverged from their ancestral line.
Cladogram Diagram that displays proposed evolutionary relationships among a group of species.
Derived Characteristic Trait that differs in structure or function from that found in the ancestral line for a group of species; used in constructing cladograms.
Molecular Clock Theoretical clock that uses the rate of mutation to measure evolutionary time.
Mitochondrial DNA DNA found only in mitochondria, often used as a molecular clock.
Ribosomal RNA RNA that is in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA in to a protein; also used as a molecular clock.
Bacteria One of three domains of life, containing single-celled prokaryotes in the kingdom bacteria.
Archaea One of three domains of life, containing single-celled prokaryotes in the kingdom Archaea.
Eukarya One of the three domains of life, contains all eukaryotes in kingdoms Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia.
Created by: 58knasims