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cell divicion vocab

mitosis and meiosis

TermDefinition
mitosis process of cell division including division of the nucleus and the cytoplasm
cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm. separation into two daughter cells
replication to copy
cell cycle the cycle of growth and asexual reproduction of a cell
chromosomes a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
chromatid each of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division. Each contains a double helix of DNA
centromere the point on a chromosome by which it is attached to a spindle fiber during cell division.
chromatin the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed. It consists of protein, RNA, and DNA
diploid (of a cell or nucleus) containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
interphase the resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell, or between the first and second divisions of meiosis.
crossing over the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring.
tetrad a group or set of four.
synapsis the fusion of chromosome pairs at the start of meiosis
polar bodies each of the small cells that bud off from an oocyte at the two meiotic divisions and do not develop into ova
gametogenesis the process in which cells undergo meiosis to form gametes
gonad an organ that produces gametes; a testis or ovary
gamete a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote
ovum/ ova a mature female reproductive cell, especially of a human or other animal, that can divide to give rise to an embryo usually only after fertilization by a male cell.
sperm
haploid (of a cell or nucleus) having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
Created by: netzer