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vocabulary words

mitosis and meiosis

mitosis Mitosis is a part of the cell cycle in which chromosomes in a cell nucleus are separated into two identical sets of chromosomes
cytokinesis is the physical process of cell division, which divides the cytoplasm of a parental cell into two daughter cells. It occurs concurrently with two types of nuclear division called mitosis and meiosis,
replication The process of duplicating or producing an exact copy of a polynucleotide strand such as DNA.
cell cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA to produce two daughter cells
chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells.
chromatid is one copy of a newly copied chromosome which is still joined to the other copy by a single centromerec
centromere is the part of a chromosome that links sister chromatids or a dyad.
chromatin is a complex of DNA and proteins that forms chromosomes within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
diploid containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cell spends most of its life.
crossing over is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction.
tetrad A group or set of four. A tetravalent atom, radical, or element.
synapsis is the pairing of two homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis.
polar bodies is a small haploid cell that is formed concomitantly as an egg cell during oogenesis, but which generally does not have the ability to be fertilized.
gametogenesis is a biological process by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo cell division and differentiation to form mature haploid gametes.
gonad an organ that produces gametes; a testis or ovary.
gamete a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
ovum/ova a mature female reproductive cell, especially of a human or other animal, that can divide to give rise to an embryo usually only after fertilization by a male cell.
sperm In the types of sexual reproduction known as anisogamy and its subtype oogamy
haploid is the term used when a cell has half the usual number of chromosomes.
Created by: adonislora