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Parasitology lab 2

QuestionAnswer
animal necropsy ectoparasites commonly ticks, fleas, lice, and chiggers found under the chin, in the ears, and near the anus most often
animal necropsy subcutaneous tissue parasites lesions or evidence of encysted parasites like nematodes. Sarcocysts, white cysts, may be in muscle tissue and "worm tracks" may occur in connective tissue. Flukes are found in the anal glands of some carnivores.
animal necropsy signs of internal parasite infection white cysts in liver tissue, enlargement or discoloration of the spleen, raised white cysts on the surface of tissues of any organs
animal necropsy signs of parasites in lungs and airways feel for lumps that may be encysted nematodes or other parasites and dissect out to observe on a slide, open trachea
Sebekia mississippiensis definitive: American alligator, intermediate: mosquitofish, Arthropoda, Pentastomida, in lungs of reptiles, may cause pentastomiasis when in mammals and migrate through the body, lethal to hatchling , 3 stages: egg, nymph, adult, no effect on adult hosts
Aspergillus parasiticus fungal ectoparasite parasite of plants, produces aflatoxin when under stress, benefit host from toxicity to animals that eat crops, large financial loss of crops
Apocephalus borealis Order Diptera, parasitoid, transmit disease, free living adult, "ant decapitating flies", final instar larvae leave host by making a hole between the head and thorax, parasitize bees and wasps, egg, larvae, pupae, adult, cause bee to abandon hive
Phyllobothrium delphini Class Cestoda-tapeworm, definitive: elasmobranchs, transfer by predation or scavenging on infected meat, intermediate: Cetacea
Taenia saginata egg, Class Cestoidea, order Cyclophyllidea egg sample with inner and outer envelope under 100X
Taenia solium cysticercus, Class Cestoidea, order Cyclophyllidea sucker and rostellum and hooks visible but inverted, stage of the metacestode in which the scolex is invaginated and inverted within a fluid-filled bladder
Taenia pisiformis adult, Class Cestoidea, order Cyclophyllidea clear rostellum, hooks, and suckers on the scoles, gravid and immature proglottids present, uterus large and branching, common genital pore, no complete gut- eat by absorption, hermaphroditic with complete m and f reproductive parts in each proglottid
Class Cestoidea, Order: Cyclophyllidea life cycle stage 1 egg shed in feces
Class Cestoidea, Order: Cylcophyllidea life cycle stage 2 oncosphere larval stage with three pairs hooks must be ingested by intermediate metacestode juvenile (cysticercus has invaginated and inverted scolex in fluid filled bladder, cysticercoid has invaginated but not inverted scolex
Class Cestoidea, Order Cyclophyllidea life cycle stage 3 metacestode juvenile-cysticercus has invaginated and inverted scolex in fluid filled bladder, cysticercoid has invaginated but not inverted scolex, plerocercoid scolex and strobila present with differentiation of proglottids possibly begun
Class Cestoidea, Order Cyclophyllidea life cycle stage 4 adult- when metacestode ingested by definitive host it excysts and/or evaginates the scolex and completes its maturation to the adult stage
Class Cestoidea, Order Pseudophyllidea life cycle stage 1 Coracidium- ciliated oncosphere, hatches out of the egg after it is shed into water with feces of definitive host (fish-eating carnivore)
Class Cestoidea, Order Pseudophyllidea life cycle stage 2 Procercoid- ciliated epithelium of coracidium disappears after being ingested by the first intermediate host (crustacean) so oncosphere can burrow through the host's gut lining into hemocoel- develops into procercoid an undifferentiated mass of cells
Class Cestoidea, Order Pseudophyllidea life cycle stage 3 Plerocercoid- first intermediate host consumed by second intermediate host (fish). Elongated with developing scolex but still undifferentiated, can increase in size but no further development until the second intermediate is consumed by definitive
Diphyllobothrium latum adult Pseudophyllidea, different from cyclophyllidea in that bothria rather than acetabula in scolex, and the genital pore lies midventrally rather than laterally
Procedure for staining and mounting helminth specimens Stained tapeworm in acid EtOH remove the stain, transfer to 70% EtOH to remove the acid, transfer to 95% EtOH to dehydrate, transfer to 100% EtOH to finish dehydrating, transfer to Xylene to fill gaps between cells so light can pass through w/o refraction
Acanthocephala spp., Phylum Acanthocephala not close relative of Platyhelminth, spiny proboscis, lack gut, ducts run longitudinally and laterally through tegument, dioecious
Osterus osleri nematode, lungworm (Filaraedidae), direct life cycle, canid species, first stage larva pass in feces/ vomitus eaten by dog, larva through intestinal wall, migrate lungs, develop adult in trachaea, Baerman extraction, not serious until nodules block airway
Trichinella nativa nematode, cause Trichenellosis from ingestion raw meat, one host, pelearctic carnivores, spread via cannibalism/scavenging, can survive -18 degrees celsius 4 years, larvae take over muscle cells and change to nerve cell to suit nutritional needs
Cryptocotyle lingua trematode, definitive: any fish eating vertebrate, first intermediate common periwinkle (snail), paratenic: fish, adult in gut of def host, egg release in feces and release miracidia after ingested by snail host, cause black-spot disease
Beaker Baermann Procedure place~4 deer pellets in cheesecloth. Tie together at the top. Suspend from wooden stick in a tapered glass with dechlorinated water. Sit overnight. Decant 1/2 water. Settle 1 min. Use pipette to transfer sample from bottom to a petri dish to examine
Trichuris trichiura egg P: Nematoda, O: Trichinellida, Family: Trichuridae (whipworms), visible under 100X egg formed in female reproductive tract, released in environment and hatch to L1, egg includes dense cloud in middle and almost lemon shaped with two opercular plugs
Trichuris trichiura female P: Nematoda, O: Trichinellida, Family: Trichuridae, visible under 4X, mouth at end of long thin "whip," stichosome along pharynx, anus at end of robust portion, vulva near end of pharynx
Trichuris trichiura male P: Nematoda, O: Trichinellida, Family: Trichuridae, visible under 10X, mouth at end of long thin "whip," stosome along the pharynx, spicules/spicular sheath project from anus in the robust section
Trichinella spiralis, encysted larvae P: Nematoda, O: Trichinellida, Family: Trichinellidae, visible under 4X, enters muscle cell after migration in blood stream and alters the cell to be "nurse" cell (inactive but provide resources) and encysts
Trichinella spiralis, adult male and female P: Nematoda, O: Trichinellida, Family: Trichinellidae, visible under 40X, female has clearly visible uterus, male has nearly distinguishable pseudobursae, both look very simple with wide end including anus and thin end including mouth, female larger
Theileria orientalis Apicomplexa, 3 subtypes, cause of Theilerosis in cattle, vector/definitive host tick, intermediate: cattle, commonly mixed subtype/species infection, fatal cases, abortion in cattle, decrease milk production so large economic cost
Philaris downsi O: Diptera, in Darwin's finches (especially nestlings), egg develops to 1st instar larva in nostril of nestling, leaves nostril 2nd instar in nest takes blood meals, up to 76% mortality rate in nestlings
Trichobilharzia regenti Trematode, flatworm, Schistosome, cause cercarial dermatitis, cellular immune response and axonal damage due to migration spinal cord to brain to nasal tissue, eggs hatch into tissue and leak out nose during drink/feeding, gastropod intermediate
Ancylostoma duodenale, male P: Nematoda, O: Rhabditida, Superfamily: Strongyloidea, F: Ancylostomidae, hookworms, intestinal, dorsal flexion, visible under 4X, copulatory bursa w/rays, mouth with cutting plates other end,
Ancylostoma duodenale, female P: Nematoda, O: Rhabditida, Superfamily: Strongyloidea, F: Ancylostomidae, hookworms, intestinal, visible under 4x, mouth with cutting plates anteriorly, dorsal flexion, vulva at tapered end
Ascaris lumbricoides, egg P: Nematoda, O: Rhabditida, Infraorder: Ascaridomorpha, F: Ascaridae, visible under 40X, robust with dark outline of shell (somewhat lumpy), inside cloudy
Ascaris lumbricoides, cross section female P: Nematoda, O: Rhabditida, Infraorder: Ascaridomorpha, F: Ascaridae, visible under 4X, cuticle on outside, hypodermis immediately under, contractile portion of musculature, muscle cell body, uterus large/ round, intestine squiggly, ovaries small/round
Ascaris lumbricoides, cross section anterior end P: Nematoda, O: Rhabditida, Infraorder: Ascaridomorpha, F: Ascaridae, visible under 4X, large muscular pharynx visible
Brugia spp., microfilariae P: Nematoda, O: Rhabditida, Infraorder: Spiruromorpha, F: Onchocercidae, visible under 40X, includes sheath, tissue dwelling with arthropod intermediate, female not release eggs, develops incompletely differentiated juveniles: microfilariae
Onchocerca volvulus, microfilariae P: Nematoda, O: Rhabditida, Infraorder: Spiruromorpha, F: Onchocercidae, visible under 40X, unsheathed, in tumor
Taenia arctos Tapeworm, terrestrial, hermaphroditic, carnivorous definitive (grizzly/black bear), herbivorous intermediate (Eurasian elk, moose), found in musk oxen in Greenland-maybe infected introduced or misdiagnosed previously, low prevalence
Dioctophyma renale roundworm, nematode, definitive canids/mustelids, intermediate grayfish/worms, paratenic fish, infects only right kidney and eats blood/tissue cells, eggs shed in urine, can occur humans, once in monkey, symptom: larger stomach, anorexia, surgical removal
Cryptosporidium bovis Apicomplexan, Family Plasmodium, identical to C. parvum, hosts cattle and sheep in SI, can autoinfect, very prevalent (even mother's milk), can die if too dehydrated, cryptosporidosis: delayed growth, malnutrition, rearrange psytoskel and induce apoptosis
Acanthocheilanema spirocauda nematode, intermediate host seal lice, seal (def), not in grey seals, heartworm, biggest infection in harbor seals, cause lesions in heart, blockage, fatigue, anorexia, emaciation, coughing, nasal discharge, coevolve with lungworm, no human risk
Ancylostoma tubaformae nematode, hookworm, cats definitive, small intestine colonized, prevalent in summer months, mouse intermediate, no risk to humans, weight loss, anemia in kittens, treated at vet
Argulus whole mount Class: Malacostraca, Subclass Branchiura, cephalothorax (head/thorax), abdomen, pereiopods (legs), maxillule (disk for holding on with hooks-Dolops)
Xenopsylla cheopis, male oriental rat flea, Class: Insecta, O: Siphonaptera (fleas), visible under 4X, vector plague, pygidium (hairs posterior end detect air currents), clasper, femur proximal, tibia, tarsus distal, claws at end of legs, maxillary palp and lacina near mouth
Menopon spp. C: Insecta, O: Phthiraptera, chewing lice, robust head, large jaws, six legs, visible under 10X
Pediculus sp, adult, female C: Insecta, O: Phthiraptera, SO: Anoplura, visible under 4X, retractable stylet, trachaea and spiracles (air canals) visible on edges
Xenopsylla cheopis, female C: Insecta, O: Siphonaptera, oriental rat flea, visible under 4X, spermatheca instead of clasper (kidney bean shape), hairs on back pronotal ctenidium
Plagiorchis vespertilionis trematode, infects vespertilionid bats, ventral and oral suckers same size, miracidium in great pond snail, one human case- ulcers in tongue and cheeks from paratenic fish, cercariae infect larva of insect spp-eradic behavior & eaten by bat
Microcotyle sebastis ectoparasite, flatworm, direct life cycle, infects gill arch of rock fish, important economic concern in Korea, congregated where gill filaments meet bony arch where blood oxygenated, egg-oncomiracidium-adult, sanguinivores, immunizing fish
Dipetalonema reconditum subcutaneous filarial worm, nematode, definitive domestic dogs, intermediate fleas transferred via blood meals, larvae mature in connective tissues, no harm to host, one human case in eye, similar to Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) cause disease
Trichinella zimbabwensis nematoda, only in Zimbabwe, small intestine anteriorly, larva in muscle tissue everywhere, Nile crocodiles definitive, may be infected by cannibalism, adult SI, eggs burrow to blood and into muscles, stay until reach L3, no impact on human
Haplorchis taichui trematode, cause haplorchiasis, commonly coinfects with liver fluke, intermediate snail, paratenic fish, definitive nonspecific but vertebrate, eats intestinal content, medically asymptomatic unless heavy infection, infect when eat undercooked fish
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematode, soil dwelling, 3rd juvenile stage only freely moving, root sends distress signal attacked by insect attracts larvae, dorsal tooth to infect insect and eat carcass, obligate symbiotic rel with bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens breaks up insect
Melophagus ovinus, adult whole mount C: Insecta, O: Diptera, F: Hippoboscidae, louse flies, dorsoventrally flat, robust legs, hook claws, 3 major tagmata: head, thorax, abdomen, 6 legs,
Cimex lectularius, adult whole mount C: Insect, O: Hemiptera, F: Cimicidae, bed bugs, long thin antennae, proboscis starts at square projection btw antennae and folds under head, 6 legs
Ixodes scapularis, adult male Subphylum: Chelicerata, C: Arachnida, Subclass: Acari, F: Ixodidade, hard ticks, scutum outline tick body, palpae ( like antennae), chelicera (grasp/rip/cut), hypostome (enters to take blood meal), capitulum head, anal groove/anus, spiracular plates air
Ixodes scapularis, adult female Subphylum: Chelicerata, C: Arachnida, Subclass: Acari, F: Ixodidade, hard ticks, scutum not visible ventrally bcs reduced, palpae, chelicerae, hypostome, capitulum
Ixodes scapularis, larva Subphylum: Chelicerata, C: Arachnida, Subclass: Acari, F: Ixodidae, hard ticks, larva only 6 legs, scutum visible, palpae, capitulum, hypostome, chelicerae
Ornithodorus spp., adult Subphylum: Chelicerata, C: Arachnida, Subclass: Acari, F: Argasidae, soft ticks, subterminal capitulum, no scutum,
Dermanyssus gallinae Subphylum: Chelicerata, C: Arachnida, Subclass: Acari, O: Mesostigmata, mites, obvious anal plate, 8 legs, mouth parts and capitulum very compact, visible under 10x (much smaller than ticks)
Created by: jebeard