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Bella CFE Higher

Human Biology Unit 2

Seminiferous Tubules site of sperm production in the testes
Ovulation release of an ovum
Testosterone Male sex hormone that promotes development of secondary sexual characteristics AND promotes sperm production
Corpus Luteum Glandular structure that develops from a Graafian follicle after ovulation
LH Gonadotrophic hormone that brings about ovulation
Prostate Gland Structure that produces a component of semen which contains enzymes that control its viscosity
Interstitial Cells Site of testosterone production in the testes
Semen Milky liquid containing sperm and secretions from seminal vesicles and prostate gland
FSH Gonadotrophic hormone that promotes sperm production in males and follicle maturation in females
Oestrogen Ovarian hormone responsible for proliferation of endometrium before ovulation
Graafian Follicle Structure that surrounds a developing egg
ICSH Gonadotrophic hormone that stimulates interstitial cells in testes to produce testosterone
Progesterone Ovarian hormone responsible for thickening endometrium after ovulation
Seminal Vesicles Structure that produces components on semen rich in fructose and prostaglandins
Microvilli Tiny folds on the surface of epithelial cells lining the small intestine
Lipase Enzyme made by pancreas that digests lipids
Hepatic Portal Vein Blood vessel that transports blood rich in absorbed nutrients from gut to liver
Glycogen Storage carbohydrate composed of excess glucose molecules
Hepatic Artery Blood vessel that supplies liver with oxygenated blood
Hepatic Vein Blood vessel that transports deoxygenated blood away from the liver
Macrophages Phagocytic cells that remove unwanted particles from blood
Myocardial Infarction Sudden irreversible damage to cardiac muscle caused by blockage in coronary artery
Capillary Tiny blood vessel whose thin walls allows exchange of materials with nearby cells
Thrombus Blood clot which may block a blood vessel
Angina Crushing chest pain that occurs when partly blocked coronary artery fails to meet increased demands of cardiac muscle
Valve Structure made of two or more flaps that prevents backflow of blood
Tissue Fluid Liquid that bathes living cells and contains small dissolved molecules but lacks proteins
Vein Large vessels that carries blood back to the heart
Venule Small branch of a vein
Arteriole Small branch of an artery
Artery Large vessel that carries blood away from the heart
Plasma Liquid component of blood rich in dissolved substances including proteins
Atherosclerosis Type of thickening and hardening of arteries caused by formation of plaques of fatty material
Lymphatic System One of many tubes carrying lymph from tissues back towards the blood circulatory system
Lymph nodes Oval-shaped structure involved in producing lymphocytes and engulfing microbes
Pacemaker Small node of specialised tissue in heart wall that exhibits spontaneous excitation
Lubb and dupp Sounds heard through a stethoscope when heart valves close during heart-beat
Diastole Phase of cardiac cycle when cardiac muscle is relaxed
Electrocardiogram Pattern on oscilloscope screen that represents electrical activity involved in heartbeat
Peripheral Resistance Tendency of vessel walls to prevent blood flow and cause blood pressure to decrease
Sphygmomanometer Instrument for measuring blood pressure
Lacteals Tiny lymphatic vessel present in villus of small intestine
Atrial systole Phase of cardiac cycle when muscle in heart's upper chambers contracts
Atrio-ventricular Node Region of specialised tissue in heart that picks up impulses from S-A node
Ventricular Systole Phase of cardiac cycle when muscle in heart's lowers chambers contracts
Cardiac Cycle Pattern of contraction and relaxation shown by heart during one heartbeat
Iron Chemical element essential for synthesis of haemoglobin
Erythrocyte Scientific name for red blood cell
Red Bone marrow Site of red blood cell production
Biconcave Description of the shape of a red blood cell
Haemoglobin Iron-containing respiratory pigment that combines reversibly with oxygen
Liver and spleen Two sites of red blood cell destruction
Implantation Attachment of embryo to endometrium
Rhesus positive Term used to describe people who have antigen D on their red blood cells
Rhesus negative Term used to describe people who make D antibodies
Endometrium Enriched lining of the uterus
Secondary sexual characteristics Bodily changes that occur during puberty
Oestrogen and progesterone Female sex hormones that promote development of secondary sexual characteristics
Puberty Stage of development when a child changes into a sexually mature adult
Postnatal Occurring after birth
Body Mass Index (BMI) A measurement of the relationship between weight and height. Very high BMI is associated with complications during pregnancy
Hypertension Blood pressure that is persistently above normal
Pre-eclampsia Complication of pregnancy characterised by high blood pressure, protein in urine, and oedema
Ultrasound scan Procedure whereby sound waves are used to project an image of the developing foetus on a video screen
Amniocentesis A technique by which a small amount of the fluid that surrounds a developing baby is removed for diagnostic testing; carried out at ~18 weeks of pregnancy
Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) A technique by which a small sample of the placenta is removed for diagnostic testing; carried out at ~10 weeks of pregnancy
Karyotype A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
Dating scan Ultrasound scan carried out at 8-14 weeks of pregnancy to determine the age of the fetus
Anomoly scan Ultrasound scan carried out at 18-20 weeks of pregnancy to identify any unusual aspects of development
False positive Assessment error in which pathology is reported (that is, test results are positive) when none is actually present
Downs Syndrome A human genetic disorder resulting from the presence of an extra chromosome 21; indicated by high volumes of fluid behind the neck observed during an anomoly scan
Rhesus Disease A condition where antibodies in a pregnant woman's blood destroy her baby's blood cells.
Phenylketonuria An inborn error of phenylalanine metabolism; Inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; treated through an altered diet
Polygenic A pattern in which many genes all influence a single trait
Antibody Y-shaped proteins that respond to an antigen and signal white blood cells to destroy the antigen
Antigen A marker on a cell that identifies the cell as "self" or "not self"; antigens are used by antibodies to identify cells that should be attacked as not self AND Causes production of antibodies
Allele Alternative forms of a gene
Homozygous An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
Heterozygous An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
Genotype A gene combination for a given trait in an organism
Phenotype An organism's appearance or other detectable characteristic
Autosome Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome (22 pairs in humans)
Sex-chromosome One of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
Sex-linked A gene located on a sex chromosome (usually the X chromosome), resulting in a distinctive pattern of inheritance.
Dominant An allele that is expressed in the phenotype of the heterozygote
Recessive An allele that is not expressed in the phenotype of the heterozygote
Carrier A person whose genotype includes an allele that is not expressed in the phenotype - especially when that allele can cause a genetic disorder
Incomplete Dominance The condition where both alleles are partially expressed in a BLENDED appearance of the trait.
Co-dominant A heterozygote in which both alleles are fully expressed e.g the AB blood type
Monohybrid A cross between two individuals, concentrating on only one definable trait
Cystic Fibrosis A genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consequent vulnerability to infection
Huntington's Chorea Autosomal dominant disorder that usually has its onset in people between 30 and 50 years of age
Sickle cell trait Inherited disorder in which individuals show signs of mild anemia; occurs in heterozygous individuals and offers some protection against malaria
Red-green colour blindness Example of a sex-linked condition.
Haemophilia Example of a sex-linked recessive trait primarily affecting males where there is a reduction or total lack of synthesis of one or more factors responsible for clotting blood
Atherosclerosis A disorder in which cholesterol and calcium build up inside the walls of the blood vessels, forming plaque, which eventually leads to partial or complete blockage of blood flow.
Atheroma Mass of fatty plaque that collects in an artery.
Lipids Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Cholesterol An important substance that is produced in the liver from saturated fats. It is a precursor to the synthesis of steroids as well as being a component of cell membranes.
Steroid A hormone consisting of lipids derived from cholesterol
Lipoproteins Clusters of lipids associated with proteins that serve as transport vehicles for lipids in the lymph & blood.
Low-density lipoprotein The type of lipoprotein responsible for transport of cholesterol from liver to tissues. It is sometimes referred to as "bad cholesterol".
High-density lipoprotein The type of lipoprotein responsible for transport of excess cholesterol from tissues to the liver where it is eliminated. It is sometimes referred to as "good cholesterol".
Statins Drugs that reduce the level of cholesterol in the blood.
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) The clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries.
Angina Chest or arm pain resulting from reduced oxygen supply to the heart muscle.
Stroke A sudden attack of weakness or paralysis that occurs when blood flow to an area of the brain is interrupted
Myocardial Infarction An obstruction of coronary artery causing death of an area of the myocardium due to blockage of blood and oxygen supply (aka Heart Attack).
Blood clot Forms when liquid blood is converted to a solid through the process of coagulation (aka Thrombus)
Prothrombin An inactive clotting enzyme present in blood plasma.
Thrombin Active clotting enzyme produced in the presence of damaged cells.
Fibrinogen Soluble plasma protein that is converted to fibrin by the enzyme thrombin
Fibrin Insoluble plasma protein that form "threads" which trap platelets and form a blood clot
Thrombosis The formation of a blood clot within a blood vessel.
Embolus A clot that breaks lose and travels through the bloodstream.
Deep Vein Thrombosis Condition of having a thrombus attached to a wall of a deep vein, often in the legs. If the clot breaks free it can lead to a pulmonary embolism
Pulmonary Embolism A blood clot that breaks off from a large vein and travels to the blood vessels of the lung, causing obstruction of blood flow.
Diabetes A disorder of metabolism resulting from insufficient or absent insulin production from the pancreas; may also be due to insulin resistance
Insulin A hormone produced by the pancreas and released in response to high blood glucose following a meal. Promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen in the liver.
Glucagon A hormone secreted by the pancreas that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood when blood glucose concentration dips.
Glycogen An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
Glucose tolerance Test A clinical test used in the diagnosis of diabetes.
Obesity The condition of being very overweight. i.e. a BMI of >30
Created by: nscobie



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