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Vocabulary for Adaptations and Natural Selection

What are the three basic requirements for all organisms? 1. Find food (survive) 2. Defend against predators (thrive) 3. Reproduce
Define adaptation A body part or behavior that helps an organism survive.
What happens to organisms that don't adapt? They die out and do not pass on their traits to their offspring.
Can an individual change its structural adaptations within its lifetime? NO. In general, adaptations occur in populations of organisms, not in individuals. Adaptations are passed on over generations.
What are the two types of adaptations? Structural and behavioral
Define structural adaptation A body structure or physical feature that helps an animal survive.
Define camouflage Blending in with the environment.
Define mimicry Looking or sounding like another organism
What are chemical defenses? Using venom, ink, or sprays for self defense
Give examples of structures that help an animal survive Claws, beaks, feet, armor plates, skulls, teeth
Define behavioral adaptation Actions that organisms do to survive
What are the two types of behavioral adaptations? Instinctive and learned behaviors
Define instinctive behavior Behaviors that organisms are born with. They don't need to be learned or taught.
Define learned behavior Behaviors that organisms are not born with. Obtained by interacting with the environment. Cannot be passed down except through teaching.
Describe countershading A form of camouflage in which an organism is lighter on the bottom and darker on the top to blend in with the sunlight when looking at it from below and to blend in with the shadows when looking at it from above (shark, penguin, etc.).
Describe disruptive coloration A form of camouflage in which vertical stripes confuse the predator or prey by breaking up the outline of the animal (herd of zebra, tiger).
Define survival of the fittest An organism is born with traits that are best adapted for its environment, which helps it survive, reproduce, and pass on those traits to its offspring.
What are examples of instinctive behaviors? Finding and storing food Finding shelter Defending oneself Raising young Hibernating Migrating
What are examples of learned behaviors? Habituation - squirrel learning to get food from a bird feeder through trial and error. Conditioning - teaching an animal to do a certain behavior (like teaching your dog how to do a trick for treats).
Created by: Bella200