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BIO Exam 3 - Stack 4


Feedback regulation and coordination with the nervous system are common in ___ signaling. endocrine
Diverse functions have evolved for many vertebrate ___. hormones
What is the endocrine system and what does it regulate? - internal system of communication involving hormones, the ductless glands that secrete them, and the molecular receptors on/in target cells that respond to them - functions with the nervous system to effect internal regulation and maintain homeostasis
What is a simple endocrine pathway? - endocrine cells respond directly to internal/environmental stimulus by secreting a particular hormone - that travels in bloodstream to target cells, where it interacts with specific receptors - signal transduction w/in target cells brings a response
Why are insulin and glucagon considered to be an antagonistic hormone pair? - because they have opposing effects - their combined activity maintains homeostasis
What do insulin and glucagon regulate? blood glucose level
What types of pathways and feedback are involved in the control of blood glucose? two simple endocrine pathways and negative feedback loops (one to raise and one to lower blood glucose level)
How is insulin doing its job of lowering blood glucose levels? - the release of insulin (from beta cells of pancreas) triggers uptake of glucose from the blood into body cells, thus decreasing blood glucose level - also, in the presence of insulin, the liver stores glucose as glycogen
How is glucagon doing its job of raising blood glucose levels? the release of glucagon (from alpha cells of pancreas) promotes the release of glucose into the blood from energy stores, such as liver glycogen, increasing the blood glucose level
What causes diabetes mellitus? - deficiency of insulin (not enough produced) OR - decreased response to insulin in target tissues (cells not responding)
What happens with regard to glucose in individuals with diabetes mellitus? blood glucose levels rise, but cells are unable to take up enough glucose to meet metabolic needs
What can happen when fat becomes the main substrate for cellular respiration (like what happens in individuals with diabetes mellitus)? - acidic metabolites formed during fat breakdown accumulate in the blood, threatening life by lowering blood pH and depleting sodium and potassium ions from the body - (ketoacidosis)
What happens in the kidneys of individuals with diabetes mellitus? - the level of glucose in blood may exceed the capacity of the kidneys to reabsorb this nutrient - excess is secreted via the urine, but that also brings along more water, resulting in excessive volumes of urine
What kind of disease is type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes)? What is happening in their body? What is the result? When does it show up? - auto-immune disorder in which the immune system destroys the beta cells of the pancreas (basically, the person can't produce insulin, so glucose can't be taken into cells) - inherited; appears during childhood - treatment of insulin injected daily
What is type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes)? What is happening in their body? What is the result? When does it show up? - a failure of target cells to respond normally to insulin (it's produced, but target cells fail to take up glucose from blood, so BGLs remain elevated) - often results from lack of exercise and unhealthy diet; usually in 40s - most common diabetes type
The ___ plays a central role in integrating the endocrine and nervous systems. hypothalamus
Created by: jessica.gvc



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